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The Humanicsxian: November 09: Issue 06
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First Published: September 24: 2015

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The Elleesium: England: UK: Year Ninth: Day 149: Monday: February 19: 2024: Cogito Ergo Sum: Descartes

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University of Helsinki Faculty of Medicine

Medicine Arkive

The Entire Spectrum of Colours and All the Forms, Manners and Expressions of Light are Made Invisible in This White: Or, Rather, Mix All the Colours and You Have This White: Or, Arrange All the Colours and Find an Infinite Rainbow: Or Take the Colours and Light Away and There Resides the Darkness But As Such That in Its Invisible Sphere There Still Remains Another Infinite Rainbow at Various States, That We Can Not See With Our Eyes: Take That All Away and You Have the Utter, Absolute and Primeval Duantum Darkness Within Which Our Matter Universe is Constructed and Does Function: Unless, We Remember This Every Nano-Second of Our Existence We Loose Our Sense and Joy of Eternal Wonder, Awe and Astonishment of This Magnificent Universe, Which is Outside, True, But Which is Nano-Seismically Constructed in the Human Physiology and Psychology: The Study of Medicine Will Always Remain and Fall Short Until It Sees and Learns That It is Dealing with the Universe, When It Goes About Learning and Healing This Human Physiology and Psychology: Alphansum Sovereign Necessarius: Munayem Mayenin: ISBN: 978-0-244-58241-8: April 14: 2020: Imsonium Books

|| New Immunotherapy Treatment For Leukaemia Possible ||

 

|| Thursday: October 05: 2023 || ά. Researchers have identified a novel immunotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia:AML. Immune cells are programmed to recognise a mutation, found in leukaemia patients. The results provide hope for new and effective treatment for the most common form of leukaemia in adults. Blood cells are formed and matured in the bone marrow.

However, sometimes mutations or damage occur in the cells' genetic material. This can lead to uncontrolled growth of blood cells and improper maturation. AML is a type of acute blood cancer where the bone marrow gets overcrowded with such immature blood cells. "AML is a disease with a very poor prognosis. With standard treatment, one-third of patients have a five-year survival rate after diagnosis." Says Professor Johanna Olweus, who is a professor at the University of Oslo and the Head of Department of Cancer Immunology at the Cancer Clinic at Oslo University Hospital and a world-leading researcher in immunotherapy. ::::ω::::

|| Readmore at thehumanion.com ||   reginehumanicsfoundation.com || 061023 ||

 

 

 

 

|| The Enzyme Aurora B May Offer Hope For New Treatment Option For Cancer || 

 

|| Friday: September 29: 2023 || ά. Researchers at the Centre for Molecular Medicine Norway:NCMM, have demonstrated the mechanisms behind the activation of Aurora B, a central conductor of cell division. Their findings can lay the foundations for developing new cancer drugs. Cell division is a fundamental process for all living things, where one cell divides into two cells. It allows for a human being to grow from a single fertilised egg cell, for wounds to heal and for dead cells to be replenished with new ones.

By the time the reader has read this sentence, millions of cells throughout a human physiology have divided themselves. When a cell divides, it happens through a series of carefully controlled steps and they happen as and when needed. Cancer, on the other hand, is characterised by cells having gained the ability to divide uncontrollably. ‘’We can say that cancer is a cell division disease. That’s why scientists are working to find new cancer treatments, that disrupt the process of cell division, so that the cancer cells die instead of dividing.’’ Said Dario Segura-Pena.::::ω::::

|| Readmore at thehumanion.com/Medicine.htm ||   reginehumanicsfoundation.com || 290923 ||

 

 

 

 

|| New Research Finds Vaping Both With or Without Nicotine Renders Immune Cells Unable to Move to Meet Threats ||

 

|| Wednesday: September 20: 2023 || ά. Inhaling vapour from an e-cigarette may be stopping frontline immune cells from working typically, as a new Study shows that, even, moderate smoke exposure suppresses cell activity. The findings have been published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and suggest that inhaling e-cigarette smoke could be damaging neutrophils, the first line of defence the human immune system has.

These findings are important as previous research has shown that damage, caused to neutrophil by cigarette smoking can lead to long-term lung damage. Researchers from the University of Birmingham took blood samples from healthy donors, who had never smoked or vaped. They, then, exposed neutrophils, taken from the blood to 40 puffs of unflavoured vape, which previous studies have shown is a low daily exposure; with half of the samples were exposed to nicotine-containing vapour while the rest to nicotine-free alternatives.

Results of the tests showed that in both the nicotine and non-nicotine groups, the neutrophils remained alive but were stuck in place, rendering them incapable of effectively tackling threats to the body. Dr Aaron Scott, Associate Professor in Respiratory Science at the University of Birmingham and the Lead Author of the Study,  said, “We found that after short, low-level exposure to e-cigarette vapour, the cells remain alive but can no longer move as effectively and are unable to carry out their normal protective functions. Interestingly, vapour from e-liquids which did not contain nicotine, also, had the same negative effects as vapour from e-liquids, which did contain nicotine.

E-cigarettes are a proven, lower harm, tool to help smokers quit smoking but our data adds to current evidence that e-cigarettes are not harmless and highlights the need for to fund longer-term studies in vapers.”

Further experiments with neutrophils exposed to e-cigarette vapour suggest a build-up of a microfilament within the cells, which are unable to re-arrange themselves properly is driving the suppression of the cells normal function.

Actin is usually found as small filaments within cells and they can rearrange themselves into a network to help a cell change its shape. This function is used by neutrophils so that they can move towards and surround threats to destroy them.

The research team observed that there were high concentrations of the filament F-actin within the neutrophils, that had been exposed to e-cigarette vapour, whether containing nicotine or not. The accumulation of the F-actin resulted in the immune cells being less able to move and function typically.

Professor David Thickett, in Respiratory Medicine at the University of Birmingham, Clinical Lead for the University Hospitals Birmingham:UHB, NHS Foundation Trust, and a Co-author of the Paper smoking cessation service and Co-author of the Paper, said: “In health neutrophils normally protect the lungs by moving from the blood to the site of possible harm before using a number of protective functions to protect the lung. The observed impact that e-cigarette vapour had on their mobility is, therefore, of significant concern, and if, this were to happen in the body, would make those, who regularly use e-cigarettes at greater risk of respiratory diseases.”

Professor Liz Sapey, the Director of the Institute of Inflammation and Ageing at the University of Birmingham and Honorary Acute Medicine and Respiratory Consultant Physician at UHB, and a Co-author of the Paper, said, “Smoking has a well-documented impact on neutrophil, and this Study further shows the impact that e-cigarettes still have on the immune system. Neutrophils are heavily implicated in ageing and chronic obstructive disease and their relationship with tissue damage and the impact of vaping in suppressing neutrophil activity regardless of nicotine could have long term implications for health.”::::ω::::

|| Readmore at thehumanion.com/Medicine.htm ||   reginehumanicsfoundation.com || 210923 ||

 

 

|| MRI Scans Improve Prostate Cancer Diagnosis in Screening Trial Than Just Blood Test Alone: One in Four Black Men Will get prostate cancer During Their Lifetime But They Are Five Times Less Likely to Sign Up For Such a Trial ||

 

 

|| Thursday: September 07: 2023 || ά. Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging:MRI as a screening test alongside PSA density allowed detection of cancers, that would have been missed by blood test alone, according to new research from UCL, UCLH and King’s College London. The REIMAGINE Study, published in BMJ Oncology, is the first study to use MRI scans with prostate specific antigen:PSA density to assess the need for further standard NHS tests. Of the 29 participants found to have serious prostate cancer, 15 had a ‘low’ PSA score, that would have meant they were not referred for further investigation under the current system.

Currently, men over 50 in the UK can ask for a PSA test, if, they are experiencing symptoms or are concerned about prostate cancer. Previous screening studies have used a PSA level of 3ng:ml or above as the benchmark for performing additional tests to look for prostate cancer, such as, a biopsy. Though previous research found that the combination of a PSA test and:or digital rectal examination, followed by a biopsy, if, disease is suspected, helped to reduce prostate cancer mortality by 20% after 16 years, this approach has, also, been linked to overdiagnosis and overtreatment of lower risk cancers.

In recent years, the introduction of MRI as a first step in investigating men at higher risk of prostate cancer has spared one in four men from an unnecessary biopsy, which is invasive and can lead to complications. It is hoped that using MRI as a screening tool, that is offered to men without them needing to ask for it could, further reduce prostate cancer mortality and overtreatment.

For this study, researchers invited men, aged 50 to 75, to have a screening MRI and PSA test. Of the 303 men, who completed both tests, 48 or 16%, had a positive screening MRI, that indicated there might be cancer, despite only having a median PSA density result of 01.2 ng:ml. 32 of these men had lower PSA levels than the current screening benchmark of 03ng:ml, meaning they would not have been referred for further investigation by the PSA test currently in use.

After NHS assessment, 29 men or 09.6%, were diagnosed with cancer, that required treatment, 15 of whom had serious cancer and a PSA of less than 03ng:ml. Three men or 01%, were diagnosed with low-risk cancer, that did not require treatment.

Professor Caroline Moore, UCL Surgical and Interventional Science and a Consultant Surgeon at UCLH and the Chief Investigator of the Study and NIHR Research Professor, said, “The thought that over half the men with clinically significant cancer, had a PSA less than 03 ng:ml and would have been reassured that they didn’t have cancer by a PSA test alone is a sobering one and reiterates the need to consider a new approach to prostate cancer screening.

Our results give an early indication that MRI could offer a more reliable method of detecting, potentially, serious cancers early, with the added benefit, that less than 01% of participants were ‘over-diagnosed’ with low-risk disease. More studies in larger groups are needed to assess this further.”

Recruitment for the trial, also, indicated that black men responded to the screening invitation at one fifth the rate of white men, something the authors say, will need to be addressed in future research.

Saran Green, an author of the Study from King’s College London, said, “One in four black men will get prostate cancer during their lifetime, which is double the number of men from other ethnicities. Given this elevated risk and the fact that black men were five times less likely to sign up for the REIMAGINE trial than white men, it will be crucial that any national screening programme includes strategies to reach black men and encourage more of them to come forward for testing.”

The next step towards a national prostate cancer screening programme is already underway, with the LIMIT trial being conducted with a much larger number of participants. The trial will, also, attempt to recruit more black men, including through mobile ‘scan in a van’ initiatives designed to visit communities less likely to come forward for testing in response to a GP invitation.

If, LIMIT is successful, a national-level trial would, also, be required before prostate cancer screening becomes standard clinical practice. Professor Mark Emberton, UCL Surgical and Interventional Science and a Consultant urologist at UCLH, a Senior Author of the Study, said, “The UK prostate cancer mortality rate is twice as high as in countries like the US or Spain because our levels of testing are much lower than other countries. Given how treatable prostate cancer is when caught early, I’m confident that a national screening programme will reduce the UK’s prostate cancer mortality rate significantly. There is a lot of work to be done to get us to that point but, I believe, this will be possible within the next five to ten years.”

Trial participant Paul Rothwell, 62, was diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2020. His PSA score was normal but MRI showed that his cancer was there. “I felt unfortunate to be diagnosed with cancer but, very fortunate to have been offered the MRI as it meant I could be diagnosed before I had any symptoms and when the cancer was at an early stage and still localised.

“If, I had just had the regular blood test, I would have been completely unaware that I was walking around with a ticking time bomb. As a result of the MRI, my cancer was caught and I was able to start treatment early, which is a huge plus.”

Following treatment, Paul remains free of cancer. He would encourage anyone offered an MRI to check for prostate cancer to have it. “The process of having the MRI is so simple; there’s nothing to it. It’s non-invasive, you just lie in the scanner, fully clothed and it takes around 15 to 20 minutes.”

The research was supported by the National Institute for Health and Care Research UCLH Biomedical Research Centre, the Medical Research Council:MRC and Cancer Research UK:CRUK. :::ω:::

|| Readmore thehumanion.com/Medicine.htm  || reginehumanicsfoundation.com ||  080923 ||

 

 

 

  

|| New Research Identity the Need For Improved Diagnosis and Treatment of Latent Autoimmune Diabetes ||

 

 

|| Thursday: September 07: 2023 || ά. Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging:MRI as a screening test alongside PSA density allowed detection of cancers, that would have been missed by blood test alone, according to new research from UCL, UCLH and King’s College London. The REIMAGINE Study, published in BMJ Oncology, is the first study to use MRI scans with prostate specific antigen:PSA density to assess the need for further standard NHS tests. Of the 29 participants found to have serious prostate cancer, 15 had a ‘low’ PSA score, that would have meant they were not referred for further investigation under the current system.

Currently, men over 50 in the UK can ask for a PSA test, if, they are experiencing symptoms or are concerned about prostate cancer. Previous screening studies have used a PSA level of 3ng:ml or above as the benchmark for performing additional tests to look for prostate cancer, such as, a biopsy. Though previous research found that the combination of a PSA test and:or digital rectal examination, followed by a biopsy, if, disease is suspected, helped to reduce prostate cancer mortality by 20% after 16 years, this approach has, also, been linked to overdiagnosis and overtreatment of lower risk cancers.

In recent years, the introduction of MRI as a first step in investigating men at higher risk of prostate cancer has spared one in four men from an unnecessary biopsy, which is invasive and can lead to complications. It is hoped that using MRI as a screening tool, that is offered to men without them needing to ask for it could, further reduce prostate cancer mortality and overtreatment.

For this study, researchers invited men, aged 50 to 75, to have a screening MRI and PSA test. Of the 303 men, who completed both tests, 48 or 16%, had a positive screening MRI, that indicated there might be cancer, despite only having a median PSA density result of 01.2 ng:ml. 32 of these men had lower PSA levels than the current screening benchmark of 03ng:ml, meaning they would not have been referred for further investigation by the PSA test currently in use.

After NHS assessment, 29 men or 09.6%, were diagnosed with cancer, that required treatment, 15 of whom had serious cancer and a PSA of less than 03ng:ml. Three men or 01%, were diagnosed with low-risk cancer, that did not require treatment.

Professor Caroline Moore, UCL Surgical and Interventional Science and a Consultant Surgeon at UCLH and the Chief Investigator of the Study and NIHR Research Professor, said, “The thought that over half the men with clinically significant cancer, had a PSA less than 03 ng:ml and would have been reassured that they didn’t have cancer by a PSA test alone is a sobering one and reiterates the need to consider a new approach to prostate cancer screening.

Our results give an early indication that MRI could offer a more reliable method of detecting, potentially, serious cancers early, with the added benefit, that less than 01% of participants were ‘over-diagnosed’ with low-risk disease. More studies in larger groups are needed to assess this further.”

Recruitment for the trial, also, indicated that black men responded to the screening invitation at one fifth the rate of white men, something the authors say, will need to be addressed in future research.

Saran Green, an author of the Study from King’s College London, said, “One in four black men will get prostate cancer during their lifetime, which is double the number of men from other ethnicities. Given this elevated risk and the fact that black men were five times less likely to sign up for the REIMAGINE trial than white men, it will be crucial that any national screening programme includes strategies to reach black men and encourage more of them to come forward for testing.”

The next step towards a national prostate cancer screening programme is already underway, with the LIMIT trial being conducted with a much larger number of participants. The trial will, also, attempt to recruit more black men, including through mobile ‘scan in a van’ initiatives designed to visit communities less likely to come forward for testing in response to a GP invitation.

If, LIMIT is successful, a national-level trial would, also, be required before prostate cancer screening becomes standard clinical practice. Professor Mark Emberton, UCL Surgical and Interventional Science and a Consultant urologist at UCLH https://www.uclh.nhs.uk, a Senior Author of the Study, said, “The UK prostate cancer mortality rate is twice as high as in countries like the US or Spain because our levels of testing are much lower than other countries. Given how treatable prostate cancer is when caught early, I’m confident that a national screening programme will reduce the UK’s prostate cancer mortality rate significantly. There is a lot of work to be done to get us to that point but, I believe, this will be possible within the next five to ten years.”

Trial participant Paul Rothwell, 62, was diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2020. His PSA score was normal but MRI showed that his cancer was there. “I felt unfortunate to be diagnosed with cancer but, very fortunate to have been offered the MRI as it meant I could be diagnosed before I had any symptoms and when the cancer was at an early stage and still localised.

“If, I had just had the regular blood test, I would have been completely unaware that I was walking around with a ticking time bomb. As a result of the MRI, my cancer was caught and I was able to start treatment early, which is a huge plus.”

Following treatment, Paul remains free of cancer. He would encourage anyone offered an MRI to check for prostate cancer to have it. “The process of having the MRI is so simple; there’s nothing to it. It’s non-invasive, you just lie in the scanner, fully clothed and it takes around 15 to 20 minutes.”

The research was supported by the National Institute for Health and Care Research UCLH Biomedical Research Centre, the Medical Research Council:MRC and Cancer Research UK:CRUK. :::ω:::

|| Readmore thehumanion.com/Medicine.htm  || reginehumanicsfoundation.com ||  080923 ||

 

 

 

|| The New Study Finds Type Two Diabetes Drug Canagliflozin Could Potentially Treat Autoimmune Disorders ||

 

 

|| Sunday: September 03: 2023 || ά. Swansea University researchers have discovered that a drug, commonly used to treat Type Two Diabetes can, potentially, be used in the treatment of autoimmune disorders. Academics at the University’s Faculty of Medicine, Health and Life Science have found that the drug, Canagliflozin, also, known as, Invokana, could be used to treat autoimmune disorders, such as, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus as it targets T-cells, which form an essential component of the immune system.

Canagliflozin is a drug, that controls blood sugar levels in people with Type Two Diabetes, however, researchers have found an unexpected role for the drug involving the human immune system. Existing research has reported that targeting T-cell metabolism in autoimmunity can lead to therapeutic benefits.

T-cells are a type of white blood cells, that help the body fight infections and diseases but, in autoimmune diseases they have been observed to attack healthy tissues. The new Study, funded by the Medical Research Council and published in the journal Cell Metabolism, found that Canagliflozin dampens down T-cell activation, suggesting that the drug could be repurposed as a treatment for T-cell driven autoimmunity.

Dr Nick Jones, the Senior Author, who led the Study, said, “Our findings are significant as they provide the foundation for the clinical development of Canagliflozin for the treatment of certain autoimmune diseases. As the drug is already widely used and has a known safety profile in humans, it could, potentially, reach clinic quicker than any new drugs, developed and bring valuable benefits more swiftly to patients with autoimmune disorders.”

Dr Ben Jenkins, the First Author and postdoctoral researcher at Swansea, said, “Identifying new roles for drugs, that are currently being used in other disease settings is an exciting area of research. Given that our research, primarily, targets the metabolism of immune cells, we hope that the potential therapeutic benefits of our findings are applicable to a wide range of conditions.”

The researchers are hopeful that canagliflozin will enter a clinical trial to treat certain autoimmune disorders in the future. :::ω:::

|| Readmore thehumanion.com/Medicine.htm  || reginehumanicsfoundation.com ||  040923 ||

 

 

 

 

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