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The Humanicsxian: November 09: Issue 06
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I Question Therefore I Learn

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|| Scientists Identify Gut Bacteria Linked to Bone Density and Bone Strength ||



|| Wednesday: October 10: 2023 || ά. Researchers at Harvard Medical School have discovered that a molecule, made by Streptococcus pyogenes, the bacterium, that causes strep throat and other infections, could help explain several long-standing medical mysteries: Why strep sometimes leads to serious immune complications, including rheumatic fever. How the immune system's recognition of the molecule may contribute to diseases like lupus.

Or why one of the first cancer immunotherapies showed promise more than 100 years ago. How current immune therapies for cancer could be more effective. The findings contradict a long-standing belief that the immune system ignores this bacterial molecule and could propel efforts to tame or activate the immune system to treat a range of diseases. The research team, led by the lab of HMS biochemist Jon Clardy, published its findings in the Journal of the American Chemical Society.  :::ω:::

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|| Researchers Gain New Insights Into Chromosome Shortening and Identify New Potential Cancer Drug Targets ||



|| Sunday: September 04: 2023 || ά. A new Study has provided insights into an important biological mechanism, that supports survival of aggressive, hard-to-treat cancers and, in the process, uncovered fascinating new information about how cells divide and grow. In the new Study, led by scientists at the Institute of Cancer Research and published in Nature Communications, researchers identify a new cellular role of protein EXD2 nuclease and, importantly, its role in the so-called ALT pathway.

The Study, which was funded by ICR itself, which is both a charity and a cancer research institute, and Cancer Research UK, also, provides potential new targets, against which cancer drugs could be developed for patients, who currently have limited therapeutic options. Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres:ALT, which have an incredibly important function in cells. They act like a protective cap during normal cell division but, shorten every time a cell divides, which makes cell death inevitable over time.

This means that, to survive and proliferate, cancer cells must subvert this natural process of telomere shortening, maintaining the length of their telomeres. They achieve this through two different mechanisms: either through activation of telomerase, an enzyme, promoting the lengthening of telomeres or, via the ALT process.

The ALT pathway is known to support survival in 10-15% of cancers. There is very limited knowledge about how ALT works and, yet, it’s one of the absolutely fundamental pathways in those cancers. Building on previous work, that uncovered a key role for EXD2 nuclease in DNA replication, in this Study the research team focused, specifically, on EXD2 in ALT-reliant cancers.

They established that EXD2 is essential to promote telomere maintenance via break-induced replication process and discovered that the loss of EXD2 in ALT cells resulted in telomere shortening. Importantly, the Study, also, found that EXD2 depletion killed ALT-dependent cancer cells, if, combined with the loss of other DNA repair proteins, such as, BLM, DNA2 and POLD3.

Therefore, this work provides a proof-of-concept that targeting EXD2 nuclease in addition to either one of those three gene products, could be a new strategy to eradicate tumours relying on the ALT mechanism for survival. Professor Wojciech Niedzwiedz, the Leader of the Genome Instability and Cancer group at The Institute of Cancer Research, London, said, “Some 10-15% of cancers support cell proliferation via the ALT mechanism, including up to 50 % of hard-to-treat osteosarcomas, soft tissue sarcomas and primary brain tumours, including childhood brain tumours.

These ALT-reliant cancers are highly aggressive and there are very limited treatment options. Understanding how these tumours maintain telomeres to sustain unlimited growth, at the molecular level, is therefore essential to help develop new therapies. Our Study expands on our understanding of how cancer cells look after their telomeres in order to achieve immortality. Importantly, it, also, uncovers new synthetic lethal interactions within the ALT pathway and, as such, paves the way for the development of new anti-cancer therapies.’’

Dr Ronan Broderick, the Lead Author of the Study and part of the Genome Instability and Cancer group at ICR, said, ‘’A lot of work in this Study was made possible by the equipment provided by the Light Microscopy Facility in Chelsea.

Dr Tina Daviter, Head of Core Research Facilities at  ICR, and Dr Kai Betteridge, Manager of the Light Microscopy Facility, have developed amazing state-of-the art microscopy at the ICR, which is essential in analysing the critical mechanisms of cell division, to identify potential cancer drug targets.’’

Professor Niedzwiedz is aiming to further develop aspects of his programme, focusing on targeting EXD2 nuclease in cancer in collaboration with industry.

Caption: ALT-reliant cells, with telomeres being marked by the green dots: Image: Cancer and Genome Stability Team at ICR: :::ω:::

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Year Ninth: Day 92: Sunday: December 24: 2023: The Humanion: We Are One











Life's Laurel Is You In One-Line-Poetry A Heaven-Bound Propagated Ray Of Light Off The Eye Of The Book Of Life: Love For You Are Only Once






I Question Therefore I Learn


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A: Absolute Right to Live in Clean, Healthy, Safe and Natural Environment: B: Absolute Right to Breathe Natural, Fresh, Clean and Safe Air: C: Absolute Right to Necessary Nutritional Balanced Food and Drink: D: Absolute Right to Free Medical Care at the Point of Need: E: Absolute Right to an Absolute Home: F: Absolute Right to Free Degree-Level Education and Life Long Learning: G: Absolute Right to Guaranteed Social Care: H: Absolute Right to a Universal Income: I: Absolute Right to a Job: J: Absolute Right to Dignified Civic and Human Funeral Paid Through by Universal Income
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|| All copyrights @ The Humanion: London: England: United Kingdom || Contact: The Humanion: editor at || Regine Humanics Foundation Ltd: elleesium at || Editor-In-Chief: Munayem Mayenin || First Published: September 24: 2015 ||
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