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Epigenomics: Epigenetics: Epigenesis: The Humanion's Newest Section: Epigenomics or Human Epigenomics or, what The Humanion called Epigenesis in a piece published in Molecular Biology, on || ‽: 191116 || is the youngest branch of science, that has been developing with intriguing new findings and openings, that we did not know much about. Like any other branches of science, work began here and there and findings began to emerge and published, followed by more works and wider awareness, interest and quest to learn more, all over the learning world, universities and research institutions. We have 'enough' learning built up to begin a new discipline of specialist study, learning, research and innovation, to call it a subject and it is a subject for in this lies another universe about which we knew, almost, nothing, not very long ago and all to find out about this all-new universe. In each 'entity': there are very many 'existent-realities': there is the Universe reality, the whole reality, the large reality, the inner reality, the outer reality and in that inner reality there are micro, macro and partial views and atomic, cellular, molecular, bio-chemico-mechanical, bio-electrical, bio-engineering, bio-synthetic and electromagnetic, anatomical, physiological, genetical, neurological, physical, chemical, pharmaceutical, mathematical, philosophical, jurisprudential, nano and, what The Humanion, calls, nano-seismic; but these are not all the views. Science will forever advance because there are, almost, endless number of these views and the more we look the more we shall learn. Epigenomics or Epigenetics or Epigenesis opened a news space and now it is time we gather our resources of light and shine and go about elucidating the workings and goings on in this space, Epigenomics. This is why The Humanion has started this new section, Epigenomics to carry on publishing works in this young field: The Humanion: March 06: 2018
Turtle Study Shows Hearts Can Be Epigenetically Programmed to Survive Without Oxygen



|| Friday: July 12: 2019: University of Manchester News || ά. University of Manchester and University of North Texas scientists are the first to show that an embryonic living heart can be programmed to survive the effects of a low-oxygen environment in later life. This Sudy of juvenile Common Snapping Turtles explains, for the first time, the heart’s biological mechanisms, which help Turtles to, uniquely, survive up to six months without oxygen.

And according to the research team, it’s the exposure to low levels of oxygen during embryonic development, which programmes the animals’ hearts to be more resilient to what is known as hypoxia for the rest of their lives. The Study, led by Dr Ilan Ruhr and Dr Gina Galli from the University of Manchester could, one day, be translated into treatments, which alleviate damage to the heart, caused by hypoxia. It is published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

Hypoxia occurs during a heart attack and can, also, damage a heart during transplant surgery. According to the researchers, exposure to hypoxia during development causes epigenetic changes to the genome, that can turn genes on or off, which are key to the remarkable ability of the turtle heart cells to tolerate zero oxygen.

“Turtles are incredible creatures, that can uniquely survive for long periods of time under ice or at depths where there is little oxygen.” said Dr Ilan Ruhr, who is a post-doctoral researcher at  the University of Manchester.

“We’re excited to be the first to show that it is possible to change the degree of tolerance, that turtles have for low oxygen environments by early exposure to hypoxia during development. Now we hope to isolate those epigenetic signatures, which help turtles to survive for so long without oxygen with a hope to developing epigenetic drugs, that can switch on tolerance to low oxygen environments in human hearts.”

The researchers are studying heart, rather than other organs in the body, as it is one of the organs most at risk of damage from hypoxia. They isolated heart muscle cells from juvenile turtles, which lived as embryos in either normal levels of Oxygen, at 21% O2 or, half the levels of Oxygen, 10%.

The procedure mimicked what happens in nature: eggs at the bottom of turtles’ nests are more exposed to hypoxia. And they subjected the juvenile turtles to lower levels of oxygen while measuring intracellular Calcium, which binds to the contractile proteins of the heart, known as, the myofilaments, pH and reactive oxygen species, a molecule we all have, which can become toxic when tissue re-oxygenates too quickly.

Dr Gina Galli from the University of Manchester said, “Heart cells in turtles and humans are anatomically quite similar, so, if, we can learn to understand what factors allow them to survive in an oxygen free environment, we’d hope to be able to apply that to a medical scenario.

Our Study showed that early exposure to hypoxia in these animals both reduces the amount of Reactive Oxygen Species, that could protect their myofilaments from damage and allows them to contract normally in the complete absence of O2.

“A drug, which is able to switch on mechanisms to protect the human heart from Oxygen deprivation would be of enormous benefit. It could, for example, protect individuals at risk of heart attack or protect organs for transplantation.”

The Paper: Developmental plasticity of cardiac anoxia-tolerance in juvenile common snapping turtles: Chelydra Serpentina: is published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B.:::ω.

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Child’s Risk of Obesity Is Influenced by Epigenetic Modifications



|| February 21: 2019: University of Southampton News || ά. A child’s risk of obesity as it grows up can be influenced by modifications to DNA prior to birth, a new University of Southampton Study has shown. These changes, known as, epigenetic modifications, control the activity of the genes without changing the actual DNA sequence. One of the main epigenetic modifications is DNA methylation, which plays a key role in the development of the embryo and the formation of different cell types, regulating when and where genes are switched on.

DNA methylation can be affected by a range of environmental factors, such as, parental health, diet and lifestyle. Researchers from the University of Southampton, as part of the EpiGen Global Consortium, analysed the levels of DNA methylation at the SLC6A4 gene, which is an important mediator in serotonin levels in the body and has been implicated in mood and appetite regulation. The samples taken were umbilical cord tissue of babies, born in the Southampton Women’s Survey at birth and compared with the amount of fat tissue in the child at four and six years of age.

The researchers found that lower DNA methylation levels at the SLC6A4 gene at birth was associated with a higher fat mass at six to seven years of age. Each unit lower SLC6A4 methylation at birth was associated with a seven per cent higher child’s fat mass at age six years. The research team compared the results to the mother’s health during pregnancy and found that higher weight gain during pregnancy and a lower number of previous births was associated with lower SLC6A4 DNA methylation.

Co-lead Author of the Paper, Ms Karen Lillycrop, from the University of Southampton, said, “Our results add to the growing evidence that epigenetic changes, detectable at birth, are linked to a child’s health as they grow up. Additionally, it, also, strengthens the body of evidence, that shows a mother’s health during pregnancy can affect the future health of her child. It could allow us to, more accurately, predict the future risk of obesity.”

The results, published in the International Journal of Obesity were replicated in other groups of children and adults, notably, the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort Study and the UK BIOCLAIMS cohort. This latest Southampton Study is another example of how the health of parents before and during pregnancy can affect the health of their future baby.

Ms Emma Garratt, Co-lead Author of the Paper, from the University of Southampton, said, “These results offer more evidence and more opportunity to allow us to develop strategies and interventions in early life, that could reduce childhood obesity rates.”

Professor Keith Godfrey, a member of the research team and the Director of the EpiGen Global Consortium, said, “The new findings strengthen the case that primary prevention of childhood obesity needs to begin before birth and, might, ‘reset’ appetite levels in ways, that protect infants and children from putting on excessive weight.

Ongoing research is examining whether diet and lifestyle interventions before and during pregnancy, might be, able to tackle and, even, reverse the childhood obesity epidemic.”:::ω.

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