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New World Health Organisation Report: Stronger Focus on Nutrition Within Health Services Could Save 03.7 Million Lives by 2025


|| Wednesday: September 05: 2019|| ά. Health services must integrate a stronger focus on ensuring optimum nutrition at each stage of a person’s life, according to a new Report, released by the World Health Organisation: WHO. It is estimated that the right investment in nutrition could save 03.7 million lives by 2025.

Essential health packages in all settings need to contain robust nutrition components but countries will need to decide which interventions best support their national health policies, strategies and plans. Key interventions include providing iron and folic acid supplements as part of antenatal care; delaying umbilical cord clamping to ensure babies receive important nutrients they need after birth; promoting, protecting and supporting breastfeeding; providing advice on diet, such as, limiting the intake of free sugars in adults and children and limiting salt intake to reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke.

“In order to provide quality health services and achieve Universal Health Coverage, nutrition should be positioned as one of the cornerstones of essential health packages.” said Dr Naoko Yamamoto, the Assistant Director-General at WHO. “We, also, need better food environments, which allow all people to consume healthy diets.”

Investment in nutrition actions will help countries get closer to their goal of achieving universal health coverage and the Sustainable Development Goals. It can, also, help the economy, with every US$01 spent by donors on basic nutrition programmes returning US$16 to the local economy. 

The world has made progress in nutrition but major challenges still exist. There has been a global decline in stunting, low height for age ratio: between 1990 and 2018, the prevalence of stunting in children, aged under five years, declined from 39.2% to 21.9% or, from 252.5 million to 149.0 million children, though, the progress has been much slower in Africa and South-East Asia.

Obesity, however, is on the rise. The prevalence of children considered overweight rose from 04.8% to 05.9% between 1990 and 2018, an increase of over nine million children. Adult overweight and obesity are, also, rising in nearly every region and country, with 01.3 billion people overweight in 2016, of which 650 million, 13% of the world’s population, are obese. 

Obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes. cardiovascular diseases, mainly, heart disease and stroke, musculoskeletal disorders, especially, osteoarthritis, a highly disabling degenerative disease of the joints and some cancers, including, endometrial, breast, ovarian, prostate, liver, gallbladder, kidney, and colon.

An increased focus on nutrition by the health services is key to addressing both aspects of the ‘double-burden’ of malnutrition. The Essential Nutrition Actions publication is a compilation of nutrition actions to address this ‘double burden’  of underweight and overweight and provide a tool for countries to integrate nutrition interventions into their national health and development policies.

Read the Report:::ω.

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New WHO Europe Studies Find Baby Foods Are High in Sugar and Inappropriately Marketed for Babies




|| Monday: July 15: 2019 || ά. Two new studies from WHO:Europe show that a high proportion of baby foods are incorrectly marketed as suitable for infants under the age of six months and that many of those foods contain inappropriately high levels of sugar. WHO’s long-standing recommendation states that children should be breastfed, exclusively, for the first six months. Its Global Guidance on Ending the Inappropriate Promotion of Foods for Infants and Young Children 2016 explicitly states that commercial complementary foods should not be advertised for infants under six months of age.

“Good nutrition in infancy and early childhood remains key to ensuring optimal child growth and development, and to better health outcomes later in life, including, the prevention of overweight, obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases:NCDs, thereby, making United Nations Sustainable Development Goal three to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages much more achievable.” says Dr Zsuzsanna Jakab, WHO Regional Director for Europe. WHO developed a draft Nutrient Profile Model:NPM for children aged six to 36 months to guide decisions about which foods are inappropriate for promotion for this age group. This was put forward to Member States and stakeholders for consideration and further discussion.

WHO:Europe, also, developed a methodology for identifying commercial baby foods available in retail settings and for collecting nutritional content data on labels, as well as, other information from packaging, labelling and promotion, including, claims.

This methodology was used to collect data on 7955 food or drink products marketed for infants and young children from 516 stores in four cites in the WHO European Region: Vienna, Austria; Sofia, Bulgaria; Budapest, Hungary; and Haifa, Israel between November 2017 and January 2018.

In all four cities, a substantial proportion of the products, ranging from 28% to 60%, were marketed as being suitable for infants under the age of six months. Although, this is permitted under European Union law, it does not pay tribute to the WHO International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes or the WHO Guidance. Both explicitly state that commercial complementary foods should not be marketed as suitable for infants under six months of age.

“Foods for infants and young children are expected to comply with various established nutrition and compositional recommendations. Nonetheless, there are concerns that many products, may, still be too high in sugars.” says Dr João Breda, the Head of the WHO European Office for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases.

In three of the cities, half or more of the products provided over 30% of the calories from total sugars. Around a third of the products listed sugar, concentrated fruit juice or other sweetening agents as an ingredient. These added flavours and sugars could affect the development of children’s taste preferences by increasing their liking for sweeter foods.

Although, foods, such as, fruits and vegetables, that naturally contain sugars are appropriate for infants and young children, the very high level of free sugars in puréed commercial products is, also, cause for concern.

The draft NPM for infants and young children was developed by following recommended WHO steps and was informed by data from several sources, including, a literature review. It refers to existing European Commission directives and Codex Alimentarius standards and reflects the approach used for the WHO:Europe NPM for children over 36 months.

The draft NPM was validated against label information from 1328 products on the market in three countries in 2016–2017 and pilot-tested in seven additional countries in 2018 with a further 1314 products.:::ω.

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In the Face of Slow Progress the World Health Organisation Offers a New Tool and Sets a Target to Accelerate Action Against Anti-microbial Resistance













|| Tuesday: June 18: 2019 || ά. The World Health Organisation:WHO has launched today a worldwide campaign, urging governments to adopt a tool to reduce the spread of anti-microbial resistance, adverse events and costs. The AWaRe tool was developed by the WHO Essential Medicines List to contain rising resistance and make antibiotic use safer and more effective. It classifies antibiotics into three groups: Access, Watch and Reserve and specifies which antibiotics to use for the most common and serious infections, which ones should be available at all times in the healthcare system and those, that, must be, used sparingly or preserved and used only as a last resort.

The new campaign aims to increase the proportion of global consumption of antibiotics in the Access group to, at least, 60% and to reduce use of the antibiotics most at risk of resistance from the Watch and Reserve groups. Using Access antibiotics lowers the risk of resistance because they are ‘narrow-spectrum’ antibiotics, that target a specific micro-organism rather than several. They are, also, less costly because they are available in generic formulations.

“Anti-microbial resistance is one of the most urgent health risks of our time and threatens to undo a century of medical progress.” said Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, WHO Director-General. “All countries, must, strike a balance between ensuring access to life-saving antibiotics and slowing drug resistance by reserving the use of some antibiotics for the hardest-to-treat infections. I urge countries to adopt AWaRe, which is a valuable and practical tool for doing just that.”  

Anti-microbial resistance is a global health and development threat, that continues to escalate globally, as highlighted in a recent report by the International Co-ordination Group on Anti-microbial Resistance. Currently, it is estimated that more than 50% of antibiotics in many countries are used inappropriately, such as, for treatment of viruses when they only treat bacterial infections or use of the wrong, broader spectrum, antibiotic, thus, contributing to the spread of anti-microbial resistance.

One of the most pressing concerns is the spread of resistant gram-negative bacteria, including, Acinetobacter, Escherichia Coli and Klebsiella Pneumoniae. These bacteria, which are commonly seen in hospitalised patients, cause infections like Pneumonia, bloodstream infections, wound or surgical site infections and Meningitis. When antibiotics stop working effectively, more expensive treatments and hospital admissions are needed, taking a heavy toll on already stretched health budgets.

At the same time, many low-and middle income countries experience vast gaps in access to effective and appropriate antibiotics. Childhood deaths due to Pneumonia, estimated globally at close to one million per year because of lack of access to antibiotics remain frequent in many parts of the world. And, although, over 100 countries have put in place national plans to tackle anti-microbial resistance, only about one fifth of those plans are funded and implemented.

“Tackling anti-microbial resistance requires a careful balance between access and preservation.” said Dr Hanan Balkhy, WHO Assistant-Director General for anti-microbial resistance. “The AWaRe tool can guide policy to ensure patients keep being treated, while, also, limiting use of the antibiotics most at risk of resistance.”

In the absence of new significant investments into the development of new antibiotics, improving the use of antibiotics is one of the key actions needed to curb further emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. By classifying antibiotics into three distinct groups and advising on when to use them, AWaRe makes it easier for policy-makers, prescribers and health workers to select the right antibiotic at the right time, and to protect endangered antibiotics.

“Anti-microbial resistance is an invisible pandemic.” said Dr Mariângela Simão, Assistant-Director General for Access to Medicines. “We are already starting to see signs of a post-antibiotic era, with the emergence of infections that are untreatable by all classes of antibiotics. We, must, safeguard these precious last-line antibiotics to ensure we can still treat and prevent serious infections.”

The AWaRe campaign: ‘AdoptAWaRe, Handle antibiotics with care’ will be officially launched on June 19 by the Ministers of Health of The Netherlands and Indonesia and WHO Assistant-Director General Dr Hanan Balkhy, at the second ministerial conference on AMR in Noordwijk, The Netherlands.  The campaign web site AdoptAWaRe.org provides advocacy and communication materials and resources for policy makers.:::ω.

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Air Pollution Kills Seven Million Human Beings Annually: Around 600,000 of Them Are Children: And the Rest of Humanity Is Paying the High Price Throughout Their Existence So Long They Can Soldier On




|| Monday: June 03: 2019 || ά. An independent United Nations Expert said on Monday that the failure of governments across the world to ensure clear air, constitutes a violation of the rights to life, health and well-being, as well as, the right to live in a healthy environment. Ahead of the 2019 World Environment Day on Wednesday, which has air pollution as its theme, Mr David Boyd, the UN’s Special Rapporteur on human rights and the environment, called on states to take urgent action to improve air quality in order to fulfil their human rights obligations.

Air pollution is a deadly, human-made problem, responsible for the early deaths of some seven million people every year, around 600,000 of whom are children. It is estimated that 90 per cent of the world’s population breathe polluted air. Every five seconds, somebody around the world dies prematurely as a result. In a statement, Mr Boyd said that uncontaminated air is a core component of the right to a healthy environment, together with clean water and adequate sanitation, healthy and sustainably produced food, a non-toxic environment, healthy bio-diversity and a safe climate.

And, The Humanion would like to pose, which of these is afforded to any individual or community of humanity on this earth? And, yet, the world goes on and the it keeps on going the same way, without stopping to ask as to what is causing all this? The United Nations is not going to answer this but the world can not wait to see that this capitalist apparatus is killing the entire humanity by these massive slaughters of life? How long would it take, at this rate, seven million human beings being slaughtered by toxic air every year, to wipe out the entire humankind? Why should one single human being die of breathing in toxic air or living in horrible environment? But capitalism’s supporters in the world would rather the world forget about all this and join the ‘circus’ so that they can all keep on ‘playing flute’ while the Rome of the World keeps on being destroyed.   

“The right to a healthy environment is fundamental to human well-being and is legally recognised by over 150 States at the national and regional levels. It should be globally reaffirmed to ensure the enjoyment of this right by everyone, everywhere while upholding the human rights principles of universality and non-discrimination.” Mr Boyd said. 

Mr. Boyd described the efforts of China, host of this year’s World Environment Day, to tackle air pollution, as a success story. Although, the Chinese capital, Beijing, has become synonymous with dirty air over the past few decades, a concerted effort by local and regional authorities has seen an improved situation in recent years, with the concentration of fine particulates, the tiny, invisible airborne particles, that are largely responsible for deaths and illnesses from air pollution, falling by a third.

Mr Boyd reiterated his recommended measures for reducing air pollution, contained in a Report presented to the UN Human Rights Council in March. These include monitoring air quality and impacts on human health, assessing sources of air pollution, establishing air quality legislation and developing air quality action plans.

“In celebration of World Environment Day, I urge States to take bold action to beat air pollution, improve health, address climate change and fulfil their human rights obligations,’’ he said. World Environment Day, celebrated since 1974, is the United Nations day for encouraging worldwide awareness and action to protect the environment. It is organised around a theme, that addresses a particularly pressing environmental concern.

In a video message released ahead of the Day, the UN Secretary-General Mr António Guterres said that, as well as, claiming millions of lives every year and damaging children’s development, many air pollutants are, also, causing global warming. Mr Guterres called climate change an existential threat and pressed the international community to tax pollution, not people and stop building coal plants.:::ω.

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What’s the Advice Doctor: Well It Appears What Is Good for the Heart Is Also Good for the Brain: New WHO Guidelines to Help Reduce the Risk of Dementia



|| Tuesday: May 14: 2019 || ά. People can reduce their risk of Dementia by getting regular exercise, not smoking, avoiding harmful use of alcohol, controlling their weight, eating a healthy diet and maintaining healthy blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar levels, according to new guidelines, issued by the World Health Organisation:WHO today. The Guidelines provide the knowledge base for health-care providers to advise patients on what they can do to help prevent cognitive decline and Dementia.

They will, also, be useful for governments, policy-makers and planning authorities to guide them in developing policy and designing programmes, that encourage healthy lifestyles. The reduction of risk factors for Dementia is one of several areas of action included in WHO’s Global action plan for the public health response to Dementia. Other areas include: strengthening information systems for Dementia; diagnosis, treatment and care; supporting carers of people with Dementia; and research and innovation.

“In the next 30 years, the number of people with Dementia is expected to triple.” said WHO Director-General Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus. “We need to do everything we can to reduce our risk of Dementia. The scientific evidence gathered for these Guidelines confirm what we have suspected for some time, that what is good for our heart, is, also, good for our brain.”

WHO’s Global Dementia Observatory, launched in December 2017, is a compilation of information about country activities and resources for Dementia, such as, national plans, dementia-friendly initiatives, awareness campaigns and facilities for care. Data from 21 countries, including, Baangladesh, Chile, France, Japan, Jordan and Togo, have already been included, with a total of 80 countries now engaged in providing data.

Creating national policies and plans for Dementia are among WHO’s key recommendations for countries in their efforts to manage this growing health challenge. During 2018, WHO provided support to countries, such as, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Qatar, Slovenia and Sri Lanka to help them develop a comprehensive, multi-sectoral public health response to Dementia.

‘’An essential element of every national Dementia plan is to support for carers of people with Dementia.’’ said Dr Dévora Kestel, the Director of the Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse at WHO. “Dementia carers are very often family members, who need to make considerable adjustments to their family and professional lives to care for their loved ones. This is why WHO created iSupport. iSupport is an online training programme, providing carers of people with Dementia with advice on overall management of care, dealing with behaviour changes and how to look after their own health.” iSupport is currently being used in eight countries, with more expected to follow.

Dementia is an illness characterised by a deterioration in cognitive function beyond what might be expected from normal ageing. It affects memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language and judgement. Dementia results from a variety of diseases and injuries, that affect the brain, such as, Alzheimer Disease or Stroke.

Dementia is a rapidly growing public health problem, affecting around 50 million people worldwide. There are nearly 10 million new cases every year. Dementia is a major cause of disability and dependency among older people. Additionally, the disease inflicts a heavy economic burden on societies as a whole, with the costs of caring for people with Dementia, estimated to rise to US$02 trillion annually by 2030.

Guidelines on risk reduction of Cognitive Decline and Dementia

Global Dementia Observatory

GDO Country Profiles:::ω.

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New UN Report Calls for Urgent Action to Avert Anti-microbial Resistance Crisis: There Must Be an Approach of One World: One Humanity: One Health: One Unifying Urgent Priority and Action: The World Must Reach Universal Health Coverage Secure and Safe Food Sustainable Farming Systems and Clean Water and Sanitation



|| Monday: April 29: 2019 || ά. International organisations unite on critical recommendations to combat drug-resistant infections and prevent staggering number of deaths each year. The United Nations, international agencies and experts today released a ground-breaking Report, demanding immediate, co-ordinated and ambitious action to avert a potentially disastrous drug-resistance crisis. If, no action is taken, warns the UN Ad hoc Interagency Co-ordinating Group on Anti-microbial Resistance, who released this Report, drug-resistant diseases could cause 10 million deaths each year by 2050 and damage to the economy as catastrophic as the 2008-2009 global financial crisis.

By 2030, anti-microbial resistance could force up to 24 million people into extreme poverty. Currently, at least 700,000 people die each year due to drug-resistant diseases, including, 230,000 people, who die from multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis. More and more common diseases, including, respiratory tract infections, sexually transmitted infections and urinary tract infections, are untreatable; lifesaving medical procedures are becoming much riskier and our food systems are increasingly precarious. The world is already feeling the economic and health consequences as crucial medicines become ineffective.

Without investment from countries in all income brackets, future generations will face the disastrous impacts of uncontrolled anti-microbial resistance. Recognising that human, animal, food and environmental health are closely interconnected, the Report calls for a co-ordinated, multi-sectoral ‘One Health’ approach.

The Report recommends countries: prioritise national action plans to scale-up financing and capacity-building efforts; put in place stronger regulatory systems and support awareness programmes for responsible and prudent use of anti-microbials by professionals in human, animal and plant health; invest in ambitious research and development for new technologies to combat anti-microbial resistance; urgently phase out the use of critically important anti-microbials as growth promoters in agriculture.

“Anti-microbial resistance is one of the greatest threats we face as a global community. This Report reflects the depth and scope of the response needed to curb its rise and protect a century of progress in health.” said Ms Amina Mohammed, the UN Deputy Secretary-General and Co-Chair of the IACG. “It rightly emphasises that there is no time to wait and I urge all stakeholders to act on its recommendations and work urgently to protect our people and planet and secure a sustainable future for all.”

The recommendations require immediate engagement across sectors, from governments and the private sector, to civil society and academia. Convened at the request of world leaders after the first ever UN High-Level Meeting on Anti-microbial Resistance in 2016, the expert group brought together partners across the UN, International organisations and individuals with expertise across human, animal and plant health, as well as, the food, animal feed, trade, development and environment sectors, to formulate a blueprint for the fight against anti-microbial resistance.

This Report reflects a renewed commitment to collaborative action at the global level by the World Food and Agriculture Organisation of the UN:FAO, the World Organisation for Animal Health:OIE and the World Health Organisation:WHO.

“The Report’s recommendations recognise that anti-microbials are critical to safeguard food production, safety and trade, as well as, human and animal health and it clearly promotes responsible use across sectors.” said Mr José Graziano da Silva, the Director-General of the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations:FAO. “Countries can foster sustainable food systems and farming practices, that reduce the risk of anti-microbial resistance by working together to promote viable alternatives to anti-microbial use, as laid out in the Report’s recommendations.”

“Anti-microbial resistance, must be, addressed urgently, through a ‘One Health’ approach, involving, bold, long-term commitments from governments and other stakeholders, supported by the international organisations.” said Dr Monique Eloit, the Director General of the World Organisation for Animal Health:OIE.

“This Report demonstrates the level of commitment and co-ordination, that will be required as we face this global challenge to public health, animal health and welfare and food security. We, must, all play our part in ensuring future access to and efficacy of these essential medicines.”

“We are at a critical point in the fight to protect some of our most essential medicines.” said Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, the Director-General of the World Health Organisation and Co-Chair of the IACG. “This Report makes concrete recommendations, that could save thousands of lives every year.”

The Report highlights the need for co-ordinated and intensive efforts to overcome anti-microbial resistance: a major barrier to the achievement of many of the UN Sustainable Development Goals, including, universal health coverage, secure and safe food, sustainable farming systems and clean water and sanitation.

Read the Report:::ω.

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Malaria Vaccine Pilot Being Launched in Malawi


|| Sunday: April 28: 2019: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine News || ά. This week saw the world’s first Malaria vaccine pilot being launched in Malawi. Malawi will be the first of three countries in Africa to roll out the landmark vaccine; followed by Ghana and Kenya. Known as RTS,S, the vaccine will be made available to children up to two years of age. Malaria remains one of the world’s leading killers, claiming the life of one child every two minutes. Most of these deaths occur in Africa, where more than 250,000 children die from the disease every year.

Children under five are at greatest risk of its life-threatening complications. Reacting to the news Professor Sian Clarke, the Co-Director of the Malaria Centre at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, said, “Congratulations to the global Malaria community on World Malaria Day 2019, a year, in which we see the first Malaria vaccine move from clinical trials to routine use as part of national vaccination programmes in Africa. It has taken over 30 years of research to reach this truly landmark moment.

RTS,S is the first vaccine, that can significantly reduce the number of malaria cases but, it is important to recognise that it is not a silver bullet, which will end Malaria, nor supplant the need to sleep under an insecticide-treated net.  The vaccine does not provide complete or life-long immunity and challenges of implementing the vaccine at a national scale are unknown.’’

Professor Clarke goes onto saying, ‘’However, given the high burden of Falciparum Malaria in Africa and its deadly consequences, even, an imperfect vaccine has the potential for major impact. Importantly, the research does not stop here. LSHTM will be playing a significant role in evaluating the success of the vaccination campaigns.

Evidence gathered during this next stage in the three pilot countries will be crucial for the World Health Organisation and underpin future recommendations on where and how best to deploy the vaccine in the future.”

LSHTM experts have been involved in RTS,S throughout the 30 years and will continue to do so, leading the development of the statistical analytical plan, which will govern the evaluation of the pilots and developing the architecture, which will ensure the flow of data from the evaluation to the various review groups, that are involved.

The Malaria Centre brings together around 300 researchers, postgraduate students and support staff from all three LSHTM faculties. Since its inception in 1998, the Malaria Centre has members working in around 40 countries at any one time.

Areas of work range from basic laboratory science to social and economic studies, with a strong emphasis placed on translating research outcomes into practice. In addition to the scientific and policy work, members, also, provide teaching and training on Malaria, both in London and building capacity in endemic countries overseas.::::ω.

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Shrinking Bio-diversity Poses Major Risk to the Future of Food and Agriculture: The Current Way of Living Is Unsustainable



|| February 24: 2019 || ά. With the bio-diversity of plants, cultivated for food, shrinking, the global population’s health, livelihoods and environment are under severe threat. This warning comes from the Food and Agriculture Organisation:FAO as the UN agency releases a new Report, the first of its kind, on the state of the world’s bio-diversity in food and agriculture. The Study, released on Friday, delivers a stark message that there is a real risk of the plant and animal species, that provide our food, fuel and fibre, as well as, the many animals, insects and micro-organisms, that make up crucial parts of the food chain disappearing for good. According to the Report, Human intervention is overwhelmingly at fault. Examples include the way land water is used and managed. Pollution, over-exploitation and over-harvesting, climate change and population growth and urbanisation. In other words, the entire way of existing in endless consumption without a dot of a question or worry to the consequences of all this are fast becoming the means to end life itself in the long run.

This current way of living and existing in unsustainable ways of life can not go on. We are simply heading to a desperately sad end where we cause the end of the ecology of life, that sustains us and with that end, we write the doom of our very own existence. With all the causes, the most vital and determinative ones are climate change and global warming, too much use of pesticides and other ‘enhancers’ and medications in agriculture and the entire chemical ‘contamination’ of many consumer products, industrial waste and pollution in the water systems and air and environment, all of which are, together, building a death-knell of a killing force against all the ‘organisms’, that are required for the natural cycle to work in harmony. The invisible army of mother nature is facing a devastating all-out war against their very survival and the world goes on, as, if, nothing is happening. But the issue is: once we lost these most precious, most vital, most fundamental natural support-systems of life there is no going back: we can not bring back these bio-diversities and without these there can not exist a human form of life on this earth. The world as it goes about today, this existential threat is not registered, as, if, this is irrelevant news, that no one reads. But it is happening and it is happening much faster and far wider and deeper than anyone can comprehend.

The FAO received a large amount of information from 91 countries, provided, specifically, for the Report and the analysis of the latest global data to compile the Report, which was prepared under the guidance of the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, the only permanent inter-governmental body, that specifically, addresses biological diversity for food and agriculture.

While 6,000 plant species are cultivated for food, just nine of them account for two-thirds of all crop production. When it comes to livestock, around a quarter of breeds are at risk of extinction: just a handful provide the vast majority of meat, milk and eggs. And more than half of fish stocks are at risk of extinction.

Wild food species are, also, rapidly disappearing, with just under a quarter of known wild food species are decreasing. However, the true proportion is believed to be much higher as more than half of reported wild food species is unknown. In addition, species, that contribute to the food eco-system, such as, pollinators, soil organisms and natural enemies of pests, are under sever threat. Examples include bees, butterflies, bats and birds.

The Head of FAO Mr José Graziano da Silva, described bio-diversity as critical for safeguarding global food security and called for food to be produced in a way, that doesn’t harm the environment.

“Less bio-diversity means that plants and animals are more vulnerable to pests and diseases. Compounded by our reliance on fewer and fewer species to feed ourselves, the increasing loss of bio-diversity for food and agriculture puts food security and nutrition at risk.”

No regions are exempt from bio-diversity threats, although, the main driving forces differ, depending on the region. For example, in Africa a key problem is over-exploitation, hunting in poaching, in Europe and Central Asia, deforestation and intensified agriculture are cited and in Latin America there is concern over pest, diseases and invasive species.

The majority of the countries, that provided data for the Report show that an interest in an agriculture-related practice, that supports bio-diversity, such as, organic farming, sustainable soil management and eco-system restoration. Most of the countries have, also, put policies in place for the sustainable use and conservation of bio-diversity.

However, the legislation and institutional frameworks are, often, inadequate or insufficient. The FAO is calling for much more effective action on a global scale. These include the promotion of supportive bio-diversity initiatives, greater efforts to improve the state of knowledge surrounding bio-diversity for food and agriculture and better collaboration among policy-makers, food producers, consumers, the private sector and civil society.

Simple ways for consumers to make a difference include opting for sustainably grown products, buying from farmers’ markets or boycotting foods, that are unsustainably produced.:::ω.

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Health Is a Human Right and All Countries Need to Prioritise Efficient Cost-Effective Primary Health Care as the Path to Achieving Universal Health Coverage: New WHO Report Finds Countries Are Spending More on Health But People Are Still Paying Too Much Out of Their Own Pockets



|| February 20: 2019 || ά. Spending on health is growing faster than the rest of the global economy, accounting for 10% of global gross domestic product:GDP. A new Report on global health expenditure from the World Health Organisation:WHO shows a swift upward trajectory of global health spending, which is, particularly, noticeable in low and middle income countries, where health spending is growing on average 06% annually compared with 04% in high income countries.

Health spending is made up of government expenditure, out of pocket payments, people paying for their own care and sources, such as, voluntary health insurance, employer-provided health programmes and activities by non-governmental organisations. Governments provide an average of 51% of a country’s health spending, while more than 35% of health spending per country comes from out of pocket expenses. One consequence of this is 100 million people pushed into extreme poverty each year.

The Report highlights a trend of increasing domestic public funding for health in low and middle income countries and declining external funding in middle income countries. Reliance on out of pocket expenses is declining around the world, albeit, slowly. “Increased domestic spending is essential for achieving universal health coverage and the health-related Sustainable Development Goals.” said Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, WHO Director-General. “But health spending is not a cost, it’s an investment in poverty reduction, jobs, productivity, inclusive economic growth and healthier, safer, fairer societies.”

In middle income countries, government health expenditure per capita has doubled since the year 2,000. On average, governments spend US$60 per person on health in lower middle income countries and close to US$270 per person in upper middle income countries.

When government spending on health increases, people are less likely to fall into poverty seeking health services. But government spending only reduces inequities in access when allocations are carefully planned to ensure that the entire population can obtain primary health care.

In low and middle income countries, new data suggest that more than half of health spending is devoted to primary health care. Yet, less than 40% of all spending on primary health care comes from governments.

“All WHO’s 194 Member States recognised the importance of primary health care in their adoption of the Declaration of Astana last October.” said Dr Agnes Soucat. “Now, they need to act on that declaration and prioritise spending on quality healthcare in the community.”

The Report, also, examines the role of external funding. As domestic spending increases, the proportion of funding provided by external aid has dropped to less than 01% of global health expenditure. Almost, half of these external funds are devoted to three diseases: HIV:AIDS, Tuberculosis:TB and Malaria.

While the Report clearly illustrates the transition of middle income countries to domestic funding of health systems, external aid remains essential to many countries, particularly, low income countries. The new WHO Report points to ways that policy makers, health professionals and citizens alike can continue to strengthen health systems.

“Health is a human right and all countries need to prioritise efficient, cost-effective primary health care as the path to achieving universal health coverage and the Sustainable Development Goals.” Said Dr Soucat.:::ω.

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New WHO Policy Brief: Anti-microbial Resistance: Efforts to Tackle Antibiotic Resistance Must Take Account of the Four-fold Difference in the Use of Antibiotics Across Europe



|| February 17: 2019: University of Exeter News || ά. Efforts to tackle antibiotic resistance, must, take account of the four-fold difference of antibiotic use across Europe, according to a new Report. Global efforts to tackle antibiotic resistance will be more effective, if, they focus on the cultural context behind the four-fold difference in total antibiotic use and consumption across Europe. Understanding how regional variations in economy and lifestyle affects the use of the drugs will help to improve the fight against antibiotic resistance, argues a new WHO policy brief, written by academics from the University of Exeter. Existing statistics show that there is a four-fold difference in total antibiotic use and consumption across the WHO European Region.

Antibiotic use is lowest in the northern Scandinavian countries and highest in the southern Mediterranean countries. The Policy Brief suggests that, instead of being blocked in a ‘tunnelised’ view, policies, must be, tailored to take account of the different ways medicines are prescribed and used across the world and the social, commercial and cultural drivers of medicine prescription and use. Prescription rates, the type of medicines prescribed and the consumption of antibiotics vary greatly between countries and this, also, affects the likelihood of developing and spreading resistance.

Anti-microbial resistance poses a formidable threat to global health and sustainable development. It is estimated that, without an effective response, resistance to anti-microbial medicines, might, cause common infections to, once again, become fatal and, by 2050, lead to, approximately, 10 million deaths annually worldwide.

Responses, often, focus on how to raise awareness of the resistance and impart scientific facts. The Report argues this alone does not sufficiently account for the ways this resistance is embedded within socio-cultural beliefs, policies and practices.

The Report, written by Ms Katie Ledingham with Mr Steve Hinchliffe, Mr Mark Jackson and Ms Felicity Thomas from the University of Exeter and Mr Göran Tomson from the Swedish Institute for Global Health Transformation.

The authors suggest that this resistance is a social and cultural, as well as, a biological issue. The Report examines the cultural factors, that impact on antibiotic use, the transmission of antibiotic resistance and the types of antibiotic research and innovation, that are currently taking place.

Dr Ledingham said, “Although, top–down or expert-led approaches, such as, scientific innovation, surveillance, national and international plans of action and antibiotic stewardship, are essential, it is, also, important to take account of the role of cultural context.

Any attempt to reduce inappropriate uses of antibiotics and reduce the risks of resistance requires understanding of the histories and cultures of medicine uses, structural issues surrounding health and health care and an appreciation of cultures of risk. Antibiotic uses and related drivers of resistance do not occur in isolation. They relate to a wide range of social and cultural matters, including, food security, poverty, health care provision and access, health care practices, norms concerning illness and recovery and, even, social representations and meanings of micro-organisms.”

The Report suggests that work by historians and social sciences looking at the history of healthcare and modern cultural practices can, effectively, complement and enhance scientific, technological and regulatory approaches to resistance.

This, might, involve developing training mechanisms to empower GPs to engage in challenging conversations with their patients, understanding how changes in food culture can, potentially, increase resistance, such as, the growing popularity of probiotics and using participatory mapping and other ethnographic methods to visualise the full range of processes and practices, which shape transmission.

This is the second policy brief, commissioned by the WHO Cultural Context of Health Project with the aim of giving practical guidance to policy-makers to using these approaches for key public health issues.

Dr Claudia Stein, the Director of the Division of Information, Evidence, Research and Innovation at the WHO Regional Office for Europe said, “This policy brief shows the wide range of socio-cultural beliefs and practices driving antibiotic use, consumption and ABR transmission in different settings and the importance of understanding these cultural contexts in designing policies to mitigate ABR. In doing so, the brief underscores the value of WHO Europe’s on-going support for the Cultural Context of Health project, which provides important qualitative evidence for policy.”

Professor Mark Jackson, the Director of the Wellcome Centre for Cultures and Environments of Health and the Co-Director of the WHO Collaborating Centre on Culture and Health, University of Exeter, said, “This policy brief, clearly, illustrates the value of a CCH approach for policymakers, since, it allows us to understand and contextualise some of the key issues related to ABR and, also, to address other complex global health challenges.”:::ω.

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New WHO-ITU Standard Aims to Prevent Hearing Loss Among 01.1 Billion Young People


|| February 12: 2019 || ά. Nearly, 50% of people aged 12-35 years or, 01.1 billion young people, are at risk of hearing loss, due to prolonged and excessive exposure to loud sounds, including, music they listen to through personal audio devices. Ahead of World Hearing Day, March 03, the World Health Organisation:WHO and the International Telecommunication Union:ITU have issued a new international standard for the manufacture and use of these devices, which include mobile phones and audio players, to make them safer for listening.

Over 05% of the world’s population or, 466 million people, has disabling hearing loss, 432 million adults and 34 million children; impacting on their quality of life. The majority live in low and middle income countries. It is estimated that by 2050 over 900 million people or, one in every 10 people, will have disabling hearing loss. Hearing loss, which is not addressed, poses an annual global cost of US$750 billion. Overall, it is suggested that half of all cases of hearing loss can be prevented through public health measures.

"Given that we have the technological know-how to prevent hearing loss, it should not be the case that so many young people continue to damage their hearing while listening to music.” says Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, WHO Director-General. "They, must, understand that once they lose their hearing, it won’t come back. This new WHO-ITU standard will do much to better safeguard these young consumers as they go about doing something they enjoy.”

The Safe listening devices and systems: a WHO-ITU standard recommends that personal audio devices include:

::: Sound allowance function: software, that tracks the level and duration of the user’s exposure to sound as a percentage used of a reference exposure.

::: Personalised profile: an individualised listening profile, based on the user’s listening practices, which informs the user of how safely or not he:she has been listening and gives cues for action based on this information.

::: Volume limiting options: options to limit the volume, including, automatic volume reduction and parental volume control.

::: General information: information and guidance to users on safe listening practices, both through personal audio devices and for other leisure activities.

The standard was developed under WHO’s ‘Make Listening Safe’ initiative, which seeks to improve listening practices, especially, among young people, both when they are exposed to music and other sounds at noisy entertainment venues and as they listen to music through their personal audio devices.

The WHO-ITU standard for safe listening devices was developed by experts from WHO and ITU over a two-year process drawing on the latest evidence and consultations with a range of stakeholders, including, experts from government, industry, consumers and civil society.

WHO recommends that governments and manufacturers adopt the voluntary WHO-ITU standard. Civil society, in particular, professional associations and others, that promote hearing care, also, has a role to play in advocating for the standard and in raising public awareness about the importance of safe listening practices so that consumers demand products, that protect them from hearing loss. The WHO-ITU toolkit for implementation of the global standard for safe listening devices provides practical guidance on how to do this.:::ω. 

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New Research Finds: Perfluoroalkyl Substances Or PFAS Chemicals Pass From Mother to Foetus Throughout Pregnancy: The Research Highlights the Paramount Urgency for Further Research to Ascertain What This Does to the Safety Well Being and Development of the Foetus and the Future of Children



|| February 06: 2019: Karolinska Institutet News || ά. In a study published in Environment International researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden show how perfluoroalkyl substances:PFAS, industrial chemicals, which are used in many consumer products, pass through the placenta throughout pregnancy to accumulate in foetal tissue. Further research is now needed to ascertain the effect, that highly persistent PFAS chemicals have on the foetus. The PFAS group comprises thousands of human-made chemicals, which, due to their water- and grease-resistant properties, are used in everything from frying pans and food packaging to clothes, cleaning agents and firefighting foams.

“We’ve focused on six of these PFAS substances and found that all appear to, the same extent, in foetal tissue as in the placenta.” says Ms Richelle Duque Björvang, a doctoral student at the Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, at Karolinska Institutet. “So, when the baby is born, it, already, has a build-up of these chemicals in the lungs, liver, brain, and elsewhere in the body.” PFAS levels were highest in the lung and liver tissue, in some cases as high as in adults and lowest in the brain. The study included tissue samples from 78 embryos and foetuses aged seven to 42 weeks, sourced from bio-banks in Sweden and Denmark. Amongst the six PFAS substances studied were PFOS and PFOA, which are the best known. PFOS was banned by the EU in 2008 and at the start of the year the European Food Safety Authority sharpened its appraisal of PFOS and PFOA and lowered the tolerable daily intake thousand-fold.

“This shows how important it is for more research to be done on the health effects of different chemicals, especially, in the longer term.” says Dr Pauliina Damdimopoulou, Senior Researcher at the Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology. “Today’s threshold values are based on an adult population rather than foetuses, which are much more susceptible.” The accumulation of PFAS substances was, also, higher in male foetuses than female.

“We know that there are slight differences in the function of the placenta, depending on the sex of the foetus, which is something we need to do more studies on in relation to impact on foetal chemical exposures.” says Dr Damdimopoulou. “We, also, need to find out what effects these substances have on different foetal organs.”

PFAS substances have been used since the early 1900s and are ubiquitous in our environment. “The main source of PFAS substances today is food, in the form of fish, milk, meat and eggs or in the drinking water, if, you happen to live in a polluted area.” says Dr Damdimopoulou. “We ingest them as a cocktail of substances, that can, also, interact with each other. It would be in line with the precautionary principle in the restriction of chemical substances to make sure that all PFAS substances disappear from our society.”

The study was conducted in collaboration with researchers from Copenhagen University and Rigshospitalet, and was financed by the EU ReproUnion project, the Novo Nordisk Foundation, Formas, the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning and the Jane and Aatos Erkko Foundation.

The Paper: Concentration of perfluoroalkyl substances:PFASs in human embryonic and foetal organs from first, second, and third trimester pregnancies: Linn Salto Mamsen, Richelle D Björvang, Daniel Mucs, Marie-Therese Vinnars, Nikos Papadogiannakise, Christian H Lindh, Claus Yding Andersena and Pauliina Damdimopoulou: Published in Environment International: Online: January 24: 2019

Caption: Left: Richelle Duque Björvang: Image: Vesna Munic Kos: Right: Pauliina Damdimopoulou: Image: Provided by Pauliina Damdimopoulou:::ω.

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New Funding to Develop Bacterial Vaccines in the Fight Against Anti-microbial Resistance



|| February 03: 2019: University of Birmingham News || ά. The UK Government has awarded the University of Birmingham-hosted BactiVac Network up to £01 million funding to accelerate the development of bacterial vaccines in a bid to prevent infections occurring as part of the global fight against anti-microbial resistance:AMR. The award has been made by the Department of Health and Social Care’s Global AMR Innovation Fund:GAMRIF and comes after the Secretary of State for Health and Social Care Mr Matt Hancock announced the UK’s 20-year vision and five-year, 2019-24 AMR national action plan.

Supported by the Global Challenges Research Fund:GCRF Networks in Vaccines Research and Development, which is co-funded by the Medical Research Council:MRC and the Bio-technology and Biological Sciences Research Council:BBSRC, BactiVac will use this additional funding to accelerate the development and uptake of vaccines against bacterial infections in low and middle-income countries. BactiVac, which delivers a large portfolio of catalyst projects by bringing together academic and industry partners from the UK and other high-income countries and LMICs, targets bacterial diseases in both humans and animals, that can lead to the emergence and spread of AMR and pose a significant threat to human health.

BactiVac is hosted at the University of Birmingham, which has one of the biggest teams of micro-biologists in the European Union, devoted to tackling AMR through pioneering research to better understand how bacteria cause infection, how antibiotics work, the causes of resistance, prevention of spread of resistant bacteria and finding new ways to treat infections.

University of Birmingham Professor Cal MacLennan, the Director of BactiVac, said, “Infections account for over 20 per cent of global deaths and are, particularly, problematic in low and middle-income countries. Bacterial infections contribute significantly to this burden, killing, approximately, five million people annually. The crisis of AMR means our options for controlling bacterial infections are narrowing and it is important that we address this urgent problem.

By eliminating the selective pressure, that anti-microbials apply on bacteria, vaccines can, dramatically, reduce the opportunity for AMR to develop and, therefore, reduce anti-microbial use. This additional DHSC support will allow us to address gaps within our vaccine portfolio and develop new and better vaccines, that directly address the issue of AMR.”

University of Birmingham Professor Adam Cunningham, the Co-Director of BactiVac, said, “Vaccines save millions of lives each year and are a cost-effective approach to prevent infectious diseases and their devastating sequelae. They can be of particular value in the fight against AMR because they prevent infections from occurring in the first place. This means that disease does not develop or develops to a lesser degree, than would do otherwise.

In addition, vaccines can protect against disease where AMR is widespread, such as, typhoid fever and so prevent disease from bacteria, that are, already, resistant to treatment. Nevertheless, there are many bacterial infections in both humans and animals for which we lack any licensed vaccine. Conversely, if, a vaccine exists, many do not work optimally, such as, in the very young or old or those with significant co-morbidities.

Addressing the need for accelerating vaccines against low to middle-income countries-relevant bacterial infections by, for example, developing novel approaches, enhancing their efficacy and uptake, is an important way to help reduce the burden of AMR. This award will help us support vaccine development against infections caused by bacteria where AMR is, already, established and is developing.”

Professor Dame Sally Davies, England’s Chief Medical Officer, said, “Increasing investment in vaccines research and development for humans and animals is a core part of the UK Government’s 20-year vision and five-year national action plan for AMR announced last week. This additional funding to BactiVac complements existing work led by the UK, particularly, focusing on infections and AMR in low and middle income countries, where the burden is greatest.”

Dr Martin Broadstock, the Programme Manager for Immunology at MRC, said, “Our goal through the MRC:BBSRC networks is to accelerate vaccine research and development and the additional DHSC investment will help achieve this by funding collaborative projects, that will aim to develop new and better vaccines against bacterial pathogens.”

The Department for Health and Social Care:DHSC is the UK government department, which is responsible for helping people to live more independent, healthier lives for longer.

The partnership with BactiVac is part of DHSC’s Global Antimicrobial Innovation Fund:GAMRIF. GAMRIF was established to provide seed funding for innovative research and development, specifically, in neglected and underinvested areas, to address the threat of AMR. GAMRIF is a £50m UK aid investment, which means all projects funded, must, support research primarily and directly for the benefit of people in LMICs.

The Fund takes a ‘One Health’ approach, seeking to invest in potential solutions to reduce the threat of AMR in humans, animals, fish and the environment. The Fund seeks to leverage additional global funding through interaction with international government bodies, public-private partnerships, product development partnerships, global funding mechanisms and global fora.:::ω.

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Year Gamma Arkive 2017-18

Year Beta Arkive 2016-17

Year Alpha Arkive 2015-16


Life Elle for Life Living Health Well Being and Homeostasis























The World Global Progress on Reducing Child Deaths

|| November 19: 2016: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine News || ά. Around 05.9 million children worldwide died before reaching the age of five, including 02.7 million newborns, according to 2015 estimates, published in The Lancet. Globally, more than four million fewer child deaths occurred in 2015 than in 2000, mainly thanks to reductions in deaths from pneumonia, diarrhoea, malaria, death during birth and measles. This image, let it be the window to show the world and world humanity that humanity always rises back up from the ashes and flies a phoenix. Nothing, can destroy this eternal phoenix that humanity is.

Life's Laurel Is You In One-Line-Poetry A Heaven-Bound Propagated Ray Of Light Off The Eye Of The Book Of Life: Love For You Are Only Once



Life: You Are The Law The Flow The Glow: In Joys In Hurts You Are The Vine-Songs On The Light-Trellis


























|| All copyrights @ The Humanion: London: England: United Kingdom || Contact: The Humanion: editor at thehumanion.com || Regine Humanics Foundation Ltd: reginehumanics at reginehumanicsfoundation.com || Editor: Munayem Mayenin || First Published: September 24: 2015 ||
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