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First Published: September 24: 2015
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Epigenomics
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Epigenomics: Epigenetics: Epigenesis: The Humanion's Newest Section: Epigenomics or Human Epigenomics or, what The Humanion called Epigenesis in a piece published in Molecular Biology, on || ‽: 191116 || is the youngest branch of science, that has been developing with intriguing new findings and openings, that we did not know much about. Like any other branches of science, work began here and there and findings began to emerge and published, followed by more works and wider awareness, interest and quest to learn more, all over the learning world, universities and research institutions. We have 'enough' learning built up to begin a new discipline of specialist study, learning, research and innovation, to call it a subject and it is a subject for in this lies another universe about which we knew, almost, nothing, not very long ago and all to find out about this all-new universe. In each 'entity': there are very many 'existent-realities': there is the Universe reality, the whole reality, the large reality, the inner reality, the outer reality and in that inner reality there are micro, macro and partial views and atomic, cellular, molecular, bio-chemico-mechanical, bio-electrical, bio-engineering, bio-synthetic and electromagnetic, anatomical, physiological, genetical, neurological, physical, chemical, pharmaceutical, mathematical, philosophical, jurisprudential, nano and, what The Humanion, calls, nano-seismic; but these are not all the views. Science will forever advance because there are, almost, endless number of these views and the more we look the more we shall learn. Epigenomics or Epigenetics or Epigenesis opened a news space and now it is time we gather our resources of light and shine and go about elucidating the workings and goings on in this space, Epigenomics. This is why The Humanion has started this new section, Epigenomics to carry on publishing works in this young field: The Humanion: March 06: 2018
New Research Identifies the Mechanism Controlling Multiple Sclerosis Risk


|| June 24: 2018: Karolinska Institutet News || ά. While the DNA sequence remains the same throughout a person’s life, the expression of the encoded genes, may, change with time and contribute to disease development in genetically predisposed individuals. Researchers at Karolinska Institutet have now discovered a new mechanism of a major risk gene for Multiple Sclerosis:MS, that triggers disease through so called epigenetic regulation.

The research, also, found a protective genetic variant, that reduces the risk for MS through the same mechanism. The study is published in Nature Communications. Multiple Sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, affecting people at a relatively young age. Most patients are between 20 and 40 years old, when they get the first symptoms, in the form of, for example, numbness in the arms and legs, visual impairment and dizziness, fatigue and depression.

The symptoms are caused by an inflammation in the brain and the spinal cord, that breaks down the myelin sheath protecting the nerves, thus, damaging the axons. Currently there is no cure for MS but the disease activity can, often, be halted through medication. Already, over 40 years ago, it was discovered that genetic variation in the so called HLA region is the strongest risk factor for developing disease. HLA encodes molecules, that are involved in the immune system. However, the specific genes and molecular mechanisms behind the emergence of the disease are not fully established.

By using molecular analyses and combining several studies of meta-analysis, including, around 14,000 patients with MS and a control group of more than 170,000 healthy individuals, researchers at Karolinska Institutet found that people with the major risk variant HLA-DRB1*15:01 have an increased expression of the HLA-DRB1 gene, thus, increasing the risk for the disease.

The researchers further discovered an epigenetic regulation of HLA expression as the mechanism mediating this effect. “We show, for the first time, that epigenetic mechanisms can cause the disease. In addition, we can connect this mechanism to the genetic variant with the strongest risk for developing MS.” says Ms Maja Jagodic, Researcher at the Department of Clinical Neuroscience at Karolinska Institutet and one of the authors of the article.

The researchers, also, discovered a new HLA gene variant, rs9267649, which reduces the risk of developing MS. This protective variant decreases the HLA-DRB1 gene expression, through the same epigenetic regulation mechanism, thus, reducing the risk for MS. The results open new avenues for potential alternative treatments based on specific epigenetic modulation, i.e, to prevent gene expression artificially. This gives hope for people with MS, as well as, other autoimmune diseases.

“Almost, all autoimmune diseases are associated with HLA.” says Ms Lara Kular, Co-author and Researcher at the same department. The study was carried out through an international collaboration with researchers in the US, Germany, Norway, Denmark and Iceland. Financing has been granted through funding from, among others, the Swedish Research Council, Neuro, the Swedish Brain Foundation, the European MS Foundation, Petrus and Augusta Hedlund Foundation, AFA Insurance, Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, Stockholm County Council, and AstraZeneca. Several of the researchers are employed by deCode genetics:Amgen Inc.

The Paper: DNA methylation as a mediator of HLA-DRB1*15:01 and a protective variant in multiple sclerosis: Lara Kular, Yun Liu, Sabrina Ruhrmann, Galina Zheleznyakova, Francesco Marabita, David Gomez-Cabrero, Tojo James, Ewoud Ewing, Magdalena Lindén, Bartosz Górnikiewicz, Shahin Aeinehband, Pernilla Stridh, Jenny Link, Till F. M. Andlauer, Christiane Gasperi, Heinz Wiendl, Frauke Zipp, Ralf Gold, Björn Tackenberg, Frank Weber, Bernhard Hemmer, Konstantin Strauch, Stefanie Heilmann-Heimbach, Rajesh Rawal, Ulf Schminke, Carsten O. Schmidt, Tim Kacprowski, Andre Franke, Matthias Laudes, Alexander T. Dilthey, Elisabeth G. Celius, Helle B. Søndergaard, Jesper Tegnér, Hanne F. Harbo, Annette B. Oturai, Sigurgeir Olafsson, Hannes P. Eggertsson, Bjarni V. Halldorsson, Haukur Hjaltason, Elias Olafsson, Ingileif Jonsdottir, Kari Stefansson, Tomas Olsson, Fredrik Piehl, Tomas J. Ekström, Ingrid Kockum, Andrew P. Feinberg, and Maja Jagodic: Nature Communications: Online: June 19:2018

Caption: Maja Jagodic and Lara Kular, researchers at the Department of Clinical Neuroscience: Image: Stefan Zimmerman:::ω.
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|| April 06: 2018 || ά. The Humanion was first published on September 24, 2015 and has been run, since that day, on a complete voluntary basis without any 'formal' or 'constituted' manner or form and, it was run on as a Human Enterprise, which is an idea of Humanics, in which, ownership is replaced by belongingship and, thus, in a Humanical Society, no one owns anything but everyone belongs to the whole as the whole belongs to everyone lawfully and equally and, it neither believes in nor makes money but human utilities, needs, aspirations, creativity, imagination and dreams are served without money, where everyone works and creates for all others as all others create and work for all others, thus, bringing in meaning and purpose to life along with it come natural justice, equality and liberty, that establish a true civilisation within the Rule of Law. And in one word, this system of human affairs management is called, Humanics and a society that runs itself in humanics is called a humanical society. Today, we have begun the process of 'constituting' this Human Enterprise, which does not exist in the current system, but the next closest thing to it, that exists in the UK Law is Social Enterprise. Therefore, today, Friday, April 06, 2018, we are beginning Regine Humanics Foundation, that is the 'Agency', that will lead, run, manage and develop everything, that The Humanion has been trying to do.

Regine Humanics Foundation is established by the Thinker, Author, Poet, Novelist, Playwright, Editor of The Humanion, Festival Director of London Poetry Festival and a Humanicsxian: hu: maa: neek: tian: One, that believes in, lives and exists by Humanics, Mr Munayem Mayenin, of London, England, United Kingdom. Mr Mayenin says, ''Humanics is a vision; people, may, call it, utopia, we, call it our Humanicsovicsopia; Humanics. Humanics is our philosophy, our faith, our conviction, our resolution, our way of existing, thinking, being and doing: to seek and try to do so in the determination that all we must do and be is to exist to advance the human condition. People, readers and agencies and organisations, from all across England, Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales and the whole of the United Kingdom and Australasia, Africa, Asia, Europe, North and South America, from all walks and strata of life, have supported our endeavours, supported The Humanion and The Humanion Team, who volunteered their time to run things, since the beginning of The Humanion and long before that, when other things, that are now part of The Foundation, were developing. Nothing has changed in terms of the nature and value of what we have been seeking to do.''

''But the founding of The Foundation brings it all in a solid foundation so that we can keep on building this 'vision' so that it keeps on going regardless of who come to take the vision-mission of The Foundation forward. The Foundation runs along with time and along with the flowing humanity. This is the dream, this is the vision, this the hope in founding this Foundation. And, in this, we hope and invite all our readers, supporters, well wishers and all agencies and organisations to support our endeavours to build something, a Human Enterprise, which we are in the process of registering as a Social Enterprise, as a Community Interest Company, working for the common good of the one and common humanity. No one makes or takes profit out of The Foundation, which now runs The Humanion and everything else, that is part of it. The Foundation, once registered, will have an Asset Lock, which means that in any event, should The Foundation dissolve itself, all its existing assets shall go to a similar Social Enterprise. Therefore, we invite everyone to support The Foundation, support The Humanion in whatever way they can. And, there are endless number of ways people and organisations can support The Foundation and The Humanion.'' ::: ω.

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Asthmatics Show Epigenetic Changes in Immune Cells

 

|| March 11: 2018: Karolinska Institutet News || ά. Children with asthma have epigenetic DNA changes in certain cells of their immune system, a major international study involving researchers at Karolinska Institutet shows. The finding, published in The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, can, one day, lead to improved diagnostics and treatment. Asthma is a respiratory disease caused by a chronic inflammation of the airways. An estimated 800,000 people have asthma in Sweden, about 50,000 of whom suffer so seriously that their everyday functioning is impaired.

It is thought that asthma is caused by a combination of hereditary and environmental factors but there are still many knowledge gaps to be filled. Collaborating with Groningen University in the Netherlands amongst other institutes, researchers at Karolinska Institutet have conducted an extensive study of the epigenetic changes, that can be related to asthma. Epigenetics governs where and when different genes are active and DNA methylation is one of its most common regulatory mechanisms. The present study shows that asthmatics have a lower degree of DNA methylation in certain immune cells than healthy controls, particularly, in what are known as eosinophils, which play a critical part in the asthmatic inflammation.

The researchers identified DNA changes in 14 gene regions linked to children’s asthma but these changes were not present at birth. “We believe that our findings are key to understanding the disease mechanisms, even, if, we’ve not yet been able to show that the epigenetic changes actually cause asthma.” says Dr Erik Melén, Docent at the Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.

“Our results suggest that the lower DNA methylation in asthmatics increases activation of the immune cells, which play a central part in the development of asthma.” The study included over 5,000 children from 10 European cohorts, including , he Swedish birth cohort BAMSE, which is led by Dr Erik Melén. The research is the result of a longer-standing collaboration with European researchers in the EU Mechanisms of the Development of Allergy programme.

“This is the largest epigenetic asthma study to date and we hope that our discoveries will give rise to better diagnostics and treatment possibilities.” says Dr Melén. “Influencing epigenetic regulation could be a new and interesting therapeutic strategy.”

The study was financed by the EU MeDALL, the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, the Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation, the Prince Daniel Grant for Promising Young Researchers, the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research, Stockholm County Council, the Strategic Research Area in Epidemiology at Karolinska Institutet and the Swedish Research Council. ω.

The Paper: DNA methylation in childhood asthma: an epigenome-wide meta-analysis: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, online February 23: 2018: Cheng-Jian Xu, Cilla Söderhäll, Mariona Bustamante, Nour Baïz, Olena Gruzieva, Ulrike Gehring, Dan Mason, Leda Chatzi, Mikel Basterrechea, Sabrina Llop, Maties Torrent, Francesco Forastiere, Maria Pia Fantini, Karin C. Lødrup Carlsen, Tari Haahtela, Andréanne Morin, Marjan Kerkhof, Simon Kebede Merid, Bianca van Rijkom, Soesma A Jankipersadsing, Marc Jan Bonder, Stephane Ballereau, Cornelis J Vermeulen, Raul Aguirre-Gamboa, Prof Johan C de Jongste, Henriette A Smit, Ashish Kumar, Göran Pershagen, Stefano Guerra, Judith Garcia-Aymerich, Dario Greco, Lovisa Reinius, Rosemary RC McEachan, Raf Azad, Vegard Hovland, Petter Mowinckel, Harri Alenius, Nanna Fyhrquist, Nathanaël Lemonnier, Johann Pellet, Charles Auffray, Pieter van der Vlies, Cleo C van Diemen, Yang Li, Cisca Wijmenga, Mihai G. Netea, Miriam F. Moffatt, William O.C.M Cookson, Josep M. Anto, Jean Bousquet, Tiina Laatikainen, Catherine Laprise, Kai-Håkon Carlsen, Davide Gori, Daniela Porta, Carmen Iñiguez, Jose Ramon Bilbao, Manolis Kogevinas, John Wright, Bert Brunekreef, Juha Kere, Martijn C Nawijn, Isabella Annesi-Maesano, Jordi Sunyer, Erik Melén, Gerard H Koppelman

Whatever Your Field of Work and Wherever in the World You are, Please, Make a Choice to Do All You Can to Seek and Demand the End of Death Penalty For It is Your Business What is Done in Your Name. The Law That Makes Humans Take Part in Taking Human Lives and That Permits and Kills Human Lives is No Law. It is the Rule of the Jungle Where Law Does Not Exist. The Humanion

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Epigenomics: Much to Learn Much to Find

|| March 06: 2018 || ά. Epigenomics or Human Epigenomics or, what The Humanion called Epigenesis in a piece published in Molecular Biology, on || ‽: 191116 ||, is the youngest branch of science, that has been developing with intriguing new findings and openings, that we did not know much about. Like any other branches of science, work began here and there and findings began to emerge and published, followed by more works and wider awareness, interest and quest to learn more, all over the learning world, universities and research institutions. We have 'enough' learning built up to begin a new discipline of specialist study, learning, research and innovation, to call it a subject and it is a subject for in this lies another universe about which we knew, almost, nothing, not very long ago and all to find out about this all-new universe.

In each 'entity': there are very many 'existent-realities': there is the Universe reality, the whole reality, the large reality, the inner reality, the outer reality and in that inner reality there are micro, macro and partial views and atomic, cellular, molecular, bio-chemico-mechanical, bio-electrical, bio-engineering, bio-synthetic and electromagnetic, anatomical, physiological, genetical, neurological, physical, chemical, pharmaceutical, mathematical, philosophical, jurisprudential, nano and, what The Humanion, calls, nano-seismic; but these are not all the views. Science will forever advance because there are, almost, endless number of these views and the more we look the more we shall learn. Epigenomics or Epigenetics or Epigenesis opened a news space and now it is time we gather our resources of light and shine and go about elucidating the workings and goings on in this space, Epigenomics. This is why The Humanion has started this new section, Epigenomics to carry on publishing works in this young field.

''One of the great mysteries in biology is how the many different cell types, that make up our bodies are derived from a single stem cell and how information encoded in different parts of our genome are made available to be used by different cell types. Scientists have learned a lot from studying the human genome but have, only, partially, unveiled the processes underlying cell determination. The identity of each cell type is largely defined by an instructive layer of molecular annotations on top of the genome, the epigenome, which acts as a blueprint unique to each cell type and developmental stage. Unlike the genome, the epigenome changes as cells develop and in response to changes in the environment. Defects in the proteins, that read, write and erase the epigenetic information are involved in many diseases.

The comprehensive analysis of the epigenomes of healthy and abnormal cells will facilitate new ways to diagnose and treat various diseases and, ultimately, lead to improved health outcomes. “This huge release of research papers will help transform our understanding of blood-related and autoimmune diseases.” says Professor Willem H Ouwehand from the Department of Haematology at the University of Cambridge, one of the Principal Investigators of BLUEPRINT. “BLUEPRINT shows the power of collaboration among scientists across Europe in making a difference to our knowledge of how epigenetic changes impact on our health.” This piece was published on || ‽: 191116 || and republished here.

The first book on Human Epigenomics has just been published. Human Genomics was written by Carsten Carlberg and Ferdinand Molnár: Springer 2018, both from the University of Eastern Finland. In the synopsis of the book what the authors put forward: ''The term epigenetics describes regulatory and information storing mechanisms of specific genes, that do not involve any change of their DNA sequence. Epigenetics is closely related to the extensively folded state, in which the genome is packaged, known as, chromatin. New genomic tools nowadays allow the genome-wide assessment of, for example, chromatin states and DNA modifications and led to the discovery of unexpected new epigenetic principles, such as, epigenomic memory. This was the start of the field of Epigenomics, the relation of which to human health and disease is discussed in this textbook.

The Humanion, hereby, invites all learning institutions and all students, researchers and teachers and professors and everyone else, who has an interest or works in this field to keep sending in news as to what they are doing and working on and finding out about this young branch of science. It's a nano-seismic universe exactly the way an 'I' floats in a 'you's eyes in nano-scale and then that nano-scale image of that 'I' comes back and gets reflected in the eyes of the 'I' and this goes on and on. There's more folded in these invisible universe, in layers and strata and spectrum, feeding this astonishing thing, called, life and this magical world and universe.

This book aims to summarise, in a condensed form, the role of Epigenomics in defining chromatin states, that are representative of active genes, euchromatin and repressed genes, heterochromatin. Moreover, this book discusses the principles of gene regulation, chromatin stability, genomic imprinting and the reversibility of DNA methylation and histone modifications. This information should enable a better understanding of cell type identities and will provide new directions for studies of, for example, cellular reprograming, the response of chromatin to environmental signals and epigenetic therapies, that can improve or restore human health. In order to facilitate the latter, we favour a high figure to text ratio following the rule 'a picture tells more than thousand words.'' Human Epigenomics.

Whatever Your Field of Work and Wherever in the World You are, Please, Make a Choice to Do All You Can to Seek and Demand the End of Death Penalty For It is Your Business What is Done in Your Name. The Law That Makes Humans Take Part in Taking Human Lives and That Permits and Kills Human Lives is No Law. It is the Rule of the Jungle Where Law Does Not Exist. The Humanion

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Believe in Human Ingenuity Creativity and Imagination For It is From There All Things Arise: The First Book of Human Epigenomics Published

 

 

|| March 06: 2018: University of Eastern Finland News || ά. Researchers from the University of Eastern Finland have published a textbook on Human Epigenomics, the study of epigenetic modifications across the entire genome. The book is the first of its kind to focus on epigenomics in humans and its role in health and disease. The term epigenetics describes gene regulation and information storing mechanisms not involving any changes in DNA sequence. Epigenetics is closely related to the extensively folded state in which the genome is packaged, known as, chromatin. New genomic tools nowadays allow the genome-wide assessment of chromatin states and DNA modifications, among other things.

This has led to the emergence of epigenomics and unexpected new epigenetic principles, such as, epigenomic memory. Authored by Professor Carsten Carlberg and Dr Ferdinand Molnár, the Springer textbook Human Epigenomics summarises the role of epigenomics in defining chromatin states, euchromatin and heterochromatin, respectively representative of active and repressed genes. Moreover, the book discusses the principles of gene regulation, chromatin stability, genomic imprinting and the reversibility of DNA methylation and histone modifications. Different sections of the book focus on the molecular basis of epigenomics and provide examples for the impact of epigenomics in human health and disease.

“This information should enable a better understanding of cell type identities and will provide new directions for studies of, for example, cellular reprogramming, the response of chromatin to environmental signals and epigenetic therapies, that can improve or restore human health. In order to facilitate the latter, we favoured a high figure to text ratio following the rule ‘a picture tells more than thousand words.'' the Authors point out.

Besides its value as a textbook, Human Epigenomics will be a useful reference for individuals working in biomedicine. The contents are based on the second half of Professor Carlberg’s lecture course, 'Molecular Medicine and Genetics', primarily, designed for MSc and PhD students in biomedicine. The first half of the course was covered by the textbook Mechanisms of Gene Regulation from the same Authors. The Authors have, also, co-authored a third Springer textbook, titled, Nutrigenomics.

Professor Carsten Carlberg is professor of biochemistry at the School of Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine at the University of Eastern Finland. His main research interest is the epigenomics of nuclear receptors and their ligands, with special focus on vitamin D. He has given yearly courses on epigenetics and gene regulation since 2001.

Dr Ferdinand Molnár is Project Researcher at the School of Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine at the University of Eastern Finland. His main research interest is the molecular structure of nuclear receptor proteins and their natural and synthetic ligands.

For further information contact: Professor Carsten Carlberg, Carsten: email: carlberg at uef.fi: +358 403553062
Human Epigenomics: Carsten Carlberg and Ferdinand Molnár: Springer 2018:: ω.

Whatever Your Field of Work and Wherever in the World You are, Please, Make a Choice to Do All You Can to Seek and Demand the End of Death Penalty For It is Your Business What is Done in Your Name. The Law That Makes Humans Take Part in Taking Human Lives and That Permits and Kills Human Lives is No Law. It is the Rule of the Jungle Where Law Does Not Exist. The Humanion

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Looking Into The Epigenesis: And This is What The Humanion Means When It Says: Symphonic Work
 

|| This Was published on November 19: 2016: Republished here on March 06: 2018: University of Cambridge News || ά. University of Cambridge researchers have played a leading role in several studies released today looking at how variation in and, potentially, heritable changes to our DNA, known as, epigenetic modifications, affect blood and immune cells and how this can lead to disease. The studies are part of BLUEPRINT, a large scale research project bringing together 42 leading European universities, research institutes and industry entrepreneurs, with close to €30 million of funding from the EU. BLUEPRINT scientists have this week released a collection of 26 publications, part of a package of 41 publications being released by the International Human Epigenome Consortium.

'One of the great mysteries in biology is how the many different cell types, that make up our bodies are derived from a single stem cell and how information encoded in different parts of our genome are made available to be used by different cell types. Scientists have learned a lot from studying the human genome but have, only, partially, unveiled the processes underlying cell determination. The identity of each cell type is largely defined by an instructive layer of molecular annotations on top of the genome, the epigenome, which acts as a blueprint unique to each cell type and developmental stage. Unlike the genome, the epigenome changes as cells develop and in response to changes in the environment. Defects in the proteins, that read, write and erase the epigenetic information are involved in many diseases.

The comprehensive analysis of the epigenomes of healthy and abnormal cells will facilitate new ways to diagnose and treat various diseases and, ultimately, lead to improved health outcomes. “This huge release of research papers will help transform our understanding of blood-related and autoimmune diseases.” says Professor Willem H Ouwehand from the Department of Haematology at the University of Cambridge, one of the Principal Investigators of BLUEPRINT. “BLUEPRINT shows the power of collaboration among scientists across Europe in making a difference to our knowledge of how epigenetic changes impact on our health.”

Among the papers led by Cambridge researchers, Professor Nicole Soranzo and Dr Adam Butterworth have co-led a study analysing the effect of genetic variants in our DNA sequence on our blood cells. Using a genome-wide association analysis, the team identified more than 2,700 variants, that affect blood cells, including, hundreds of rare genetic variants, that have far larger effects on the formation of blood cells than the common ones. Interestingly, they found genetic links between the effects of these variants and autoimmune diseases, schizophrenia and coronary heart disease, thereby, providing new insights into the causes of these diseases.

A second study led by Professor Soranzo looked at the contribution of genetic and epigenetic factors to different immune cell characteristics in the largest cohort of this kind created with blood donors from the NHS Blood and Transplant centre in Cambridge.

Dr Mattia Frontini and Dr Chris Wallace, together with scientists at the Babraham Institute, have jointly led a third study mapping the regions of the genome, that interact with genes in 17 different blood cell types. By creating an atlas of links between genes and the remote regions, that regulate them in each cell type, they have been able to uncover thousands of genes affected by DNA modifications, pointing to their roles in diseases, such as, rheumatoid arthritis and other types of autoimmune disease.

Dr Frontini has, also, co-led a study with BLUEPRINT colleagues from the University of Vienna, that has developed a reference map of how epigenetic changes to DNA can programme haematopoietic stem cells, a particular type of ‘master cell’, to develop into the different types of blood and immune cells.

Professor Jeremy Pearson, Associate Medical Director at the British Heart Foundation, which helped fund the research, said, “Our genes are critical to our health and there’s still a wealth of information hidden in our genetic code. By taking advantage of a large scale international collaboration, involving the combined expertise of dozens of research groups, these unprecedented studies have uncovered, potentially, crucial knowledge for the development of new life saving treatments for heart disease and many other deadly conditions.

Collaborations like this, which rely on funding from the public through charities and governments across the globe, are vital for analysing and understanding the secrets of our genetics. Research of this kind is helping us to beat disease and improve millions of lives.”

Departmental Affiliations
Professor Nicole Soranzo: Department of Haematology
Dr Adam Butterworth: Medical Research Council:MRC:British Heart Foundation:BHF:Cardiovascular Epidemiology Unit
Dr Mattia Frontini: Department of Haematology, and Senior Research Fellow for the BHF Cambridge Centre for Research Excellence
Dr Chris Wallace: Department of Medicine and MRC Biostatistics Unit::
ω.

The Paper: Astle, WJ et al. The allelic landscape of human blood cell trait variation. Cell: November 17: 2016: DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2016.10.042
Chen, L et al. Genetic drivers of epigenetic and transcriptional variation in human immune cells: Cell: November 17: 2016; DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0000051
Javierre et al. Lineage-specific genome architecture links enhancers and non-coding disease variants to target gene promoters: Cell: November 17: 2016; DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2016.09.037
Farlik et al. Cell Stem Cell: November 17: 2016; DOI: 10.1016/j.stem.2016.10.019

:The text in this piece is by University of Cambridge and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License:

Caption: Detail of Epigenome: Image: haha works

Whatever Your Field of Work and Wherever in the World You are, Please, Make a Choice to Do All You Can to Seek and Demand the End of Death Penalty For It is Your Business What is Done in Your Name. The Law That Makes Humans Take Part in Taking Human Lives and That Permits and Kills Human Lives is No Law. It is the Rule of the Jungle Where Law Does Not Exist. The Humanion

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For Stories Published in Epigenomics in || January || February || March 2018 || Epigenomics 2018 Q-Alpha

 

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Life: You Are The Law The Flow The Glow: In Joys In Hurts You Are The Vine-Songs On The Light-Trellis

 

 

 

 

   
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

|| All copyrights @ The Humanion: London: England: United Kingdom || Contact: The Humanion: editor at thehumanion.com || Regine Humanics Foundation Ltd: reginehumanics at reginehumanicsfoundation.com || Editor: Munayem Mayenin || First Published: September 24: 2015 ||
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