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And One Day Human Footfalls Be Echoing Through the Solitude of Mars: A Jane Douglas Today May Only Pretend at the ESA Astronaut Centre in Cologne, Germany But Only Through Imagination Humanity Edges Towards New Realities: March 04: 2017

Giant Pattern Discovered in the Clouds of Planet Venus: Infrared Cameras and Supercomputer Simulations Break Through the Veil of Venus

 

 

|| January 10: 2019 || ά. A Japanese research group has identified a giant streak structure among the clouds covering planet Venus, based on observation from the spacecraft Akatsuki. The team, also, showed the origins of this structure, using large-scale climate simulations. The group was led by Project Assistant Professor Hiroki Kashimura, Kobe University, Graduate School of Science and these findings were published on January 09 in Nature Communications. Venus is, often, called Earth’s twin because of their similar size and gravity but the climate on Venus is very different.

Venus rotates in the opposite direction to Earth and a lot more slowly, about one rotation for 243 Earth days. Meanwhile, about 60 km above Venus’ surface a speedy east wind circles the planet in about four Earth days, at 360 km:h, a phenomenon, known as, atmospheric super-rotation. The sky of Venus is fully covered by thick clouds of sulfuric acid, that are located at a height of 45-70 km, making it hard to observe the planet’s surface from Earth-based telescopes and orbiters, circling Venus. Surface temperatures reach a scorching 460 degrees Celsius, a harsh environment for any observation by entry probes. Due to these conditions, there are still many unknowns regarding.

To solve the puzzle of Venus’ atmosphere, the Japanese spacecraft Akatsuki began its orbit of Venus in December 2015. One of the observational instruments of Akatsuki is an infrared camera ‘IR2’, that measures wavelengths of 02μm, 0.002mm. This camera can capture detailed cloud morphology of the lower cloud levels, about 50 km from the surface. Optical and ultra-violet rays are blocked by the upper cloud layers but due to infrared technology, dynamic structures of the lower clouds are gradually being shown.

Before the Akatsuki mission began, the research team developed a programme, called, AFES-Venus for calculating simulations of Venus’ atmosphere. On Earth, atmospheric phenomena on every scale are researched and predicted, using numerical simulations, from the daily weather forecast and typhoon reports to anticipated climate change, arising from global warming. For Venus, the difficulty of observation makes numerical simulations, even, more important but this same issue, also, makes it hard to confirm the accuracy of the simulations.

AFES-Venus had already succeeded in reproducing super-rotational winds and polar temperature structures of the Venus atmosphere. Using the Earth Simulator, a supercomputer system provided by the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology:JAMSTEC, the research team created numerical simulations at a high spatial resolution. However, because of the low quality of observational data before Akatsuki, it was hard to prove whether these simulations were accurate reconstructions.

This study compared detailed observational data of the lower cloud levels of Venus, taken by Akatsuki’s IR2 camera with the high-resolution simulations from the AFES-Venus programme.

Next, through detailed analyses of the AFES-Venus simulation results, the team showed the origin of this giant streak structure. The key to this structure is a phenomenon closely connected to Earth’s everyday weather: polar jet streams. In mid and high latitudes of Earth, a large-scale dynamics of winds, baroclinic instability, forms extratropical cyclones, migratory high-pressure systems and polar jet streams. The results of the simulations showed the same mechanism at work in the cloud layers of Venus, suggesting that jet streams, may be, formed at high latitudes.

At lower latitudes, an atmospheric wave due to the distribution of large-scale flows and the planetary rotation effect, Rossby wave, generates large vortexes across the equator to latitudes of 60 degrees in both directions. When jet streams are added to this phenomenon, the vortexes tilt and stretch and the convergence zone between the north and south winds forms as a streak. The north-south wind, that is pushed out by the convergence zone becomes a strong downward flow, resulting in the planetary-scale streak structure. The Rossby wave, also, combines with a large atmospheric fluctuation located over the equator, equatorial Kelvin wave, in the lower cloud levels, preserving the symmetry between hemispheres.

This study showed the giant streak structure on the planetary scale in the lower cloud levels of Venus, replicated this structure with simulations and suggested that this streak structure is formed from two types of atmospheric fluctuations, waves, baroclinic instability and jet streams. The successful simulation of the planetary-scale streak structure formed from multiple atmospheric phenomena is evidence for the accuracy of the simulations for individual phenomena calculated in this process.

Until now, studies of Venus’ climate have mainly focused on average calculations from east to west. This finding has raised the study of Venus’ climate to a new level, in which discussion of the detailed three-dimensional structure of Venus is possible. The next step, through collaboration with Akatsuki and AFES-Venus, is to solve the puzzle of the climate of Earth’s twin Venus, veiled in the thick cloud of sulfuric acid.

The Paper: Planetary-scale streak structure reproduced in high-resolution simulations of the Venus atmosphere with a low-stability layer: Authors: Hiroki Kashimura, Norihiko Sugimoto, Masahiro Takagi, Yoshihisa Matsuda, Wataru Ohfuchi, Takeshi Enomoto, Kensuke Nakajima, Masaki Ishiwatari, Takao M. Sato, George L. Hashimoto, Takehiko Satoh, Yoshiyuki O. Takahashi, Yoshi-Yuki Hayashi: Journal Nature Communications:::ω.

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Here We Are At the Elysium Planitia Today Or Rather Our Robots: Soon We Shall Be There Doing Not Robotics But Humanics with Our Human Hands and Our Human Feet and Our Human Eyes and O With Our Human Minds: NASA InSight Lander Arrives on Martian Surface to Learn What Lies Beneath: What Lies Above Beneath and Around Is Science: Imagine to Create It: Wonder to Envision It: Strive to Reach It: Keep on Learning to Achieve It

 

 

|| November 26: 2018|| ά. Mars has just received its newest robotic resident. NASA's Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport or for Short, InSight lander successfully touched down on the Red Planet after an almost seven-month, 300-million-mile, 458-million-kilometre journey from Earth. InSight’s two-year mission will be to study the deep interior of Mars to learn how all celestial bodies with rocky surfaces, including, the Earth and the Moon, formed.

InSight launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California on May 05. The lander touched down on Monday, November 26, near Mars' equator on the western side of a flat, smooth expanse of lava, called, Elysium Planitia, with a signal affirming a completed landing sequence at approximately noon PST 15:00 EST. "Today, we successfully landed on Mars for the eighth time in human history.” said NASA Administrator Mr Jim Bridenstine. “InSight will study the interior of Mars and will teach us valuable science as we prepare to send astronauts to the Moon and later to Mars.

This accomplishment represents the ingenuity of America and our international partners and it serves as a testament to the dedication and perseverance of our team. The best of NASA is yet to come and it is coming soon.” The landing signal was relayed to NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory:JPL in Pasadena, California, via one of NASA's two small experimental Mars Cube One:MarCO CubeSats, which launched on the same rocket as InSight and followed the lander to Mars.

They are the first CubeSats sent into deep space. After successfully carrying out a number of communications and in-flight navigation experiments, the twin MarCOs were set in position to receive transmissions during InSight's entry, descent and landing.

"We hit the Martian atmosphere at 12,300 mph or 19,800 kilometres per hour and the whole sequence to touching down on the surface took only six-and-a-half minutes." said InSight Project Manager Mr Tom Hoffman at JPL. "During that short span of time, InSight had to autonomously perform dozens of operations and do them flawlessly and, by all indications, that is exactly what our spacecraft did." 

Confirmation of a successful touchdown is not the end of the challenges of landing on the Red Planet. InSight's surface-operations phase began a minute after touchdown. One of its first tasks is to deploy its two decagonal solar arrays, which will provide power. That process begins 16 minutes after landing and takes another 16 minutes to complete.

The InSight team expects a confirmation later Monday that the spacecraft's solar panels successfully deployed. Verification will come from NASA's Odyssey spacecraft, currently orbiting Mars. That signal is expected to reach InSight's mission control at JPL about five and a half hours after landing.

"We are solar powered, so getting the arrays out and operating is a big deal." said Hoffman. "With the arrays providing the energy we need to start the cool science operations, we are well on our way to thoroughly investigate what's inside of Mars for the very first time."

InSight will begin to collect science data within the first week after landing, though the teams will focus mainly on preparing to set InSight's instruments on the Martian ground. At least two days after touchdown, the engineering team will begin to deploy InSight's 05.9-foot-long, 01.8-metre-long robotic arm so that it can take images of the landscape.

"Landing was thrilling but I'm looking forward to the drilling." said InSight Principal Investigator Mr Bruce Banerdt of JPL. "When the first images come down, our engineering and science teams will hit the ground running, beginning to plan where to deploy our science instruments. Within two or three months, the arm will deploy the mission's main science instruments, the Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure:SEIS  and Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package:HP3 instruments."

InSight will operate on the surface for one Martian year, plus 40 Martian days or sols, until November 24, 2020. The mission objectives of the two small MarCOs, which relayed InSight’s telemetry was completed after their Martian flyby.

"That's one giant leap for our intrepid, briefcase-sized robotic explorers." said Mr Joel Krajewski, MarCOproject Manager at JPL. "I think CubeSats have a big future beyond Earth's orbit and the MarCO team is happy to trailblaze the way."

"Every Mars landing is daunting but now with InSight safely on the surface we get to do a unique kind of science on Mars." said JPL Director Mr Michael Watkins. "The experimental MarCO CubeSats have, also, opened a new door to smaller planetary spacecraft. The success of these two unique missions is a tribute to the hundreds of talented engineers and scientists, who put their genius and labour into making this a great day."

JPL manages InSight for NASA's Science Mission Directorate. InSight is part of NASA's Discovery Programme, managed by the agency's Marshall Space Flight Centre in Huntsville, Alabama. The MarCO CubeSats were built and managed by JPL. Lockheed Martin Space in Denver built the InSight spacecraft, including its cruise stage and lander, and supports spacecraft operations for the mission.

A number of European partners, including, France's Centre National d'Études Spatiales:CNES and the German Aerospace Centre:DLR, are supporting the InSight mission. CNES and the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris:IPGP, provided the SEIS instrument, with significant contributions from the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research:MPS in Germany, the Swiss Institute of Technology:ETH in Switzerland, Imperial College and Oxford University in the United Kingdom and JPL. DLR provided the HP3 instrument, with significant contributions from the Space Research Centre:CBK of the Polish Academy of Sciences and Astronika in Poland. Spain's Centro de Astrobiología:CAB supplied the wind sensors. 

For more information about InSight, visit

Dwayne Brown:JoAnna Wendel

Headquarters, Washington

202-358-1726: 202-358-1003

dwayne.c.brown at nasa.gov:::joanna.r.wendel at nasa.gov

DC Agle

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

818-393-9011

agle at jpl.nasa.gov

:Editor: Sean Potter: NASA:

Caption: NASA's InSight Mars lander acquired this image of the area in front of the lander using its lander-mounted, Instrument Context Camera (ICC). This image was acquired on Nov. 26, 2018, Sol 0 of the InSight mission where the local mean solar time for the image exposures was 13:34:21. Each ICC image has a field of view of 124 x 124 degrees: Inside Image: NASA:JPL-CalTech:::ω.

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Don’t Just Make Graffiti Around Trafalgar Square or New York’s Back Streets or Johannesburg and Look Up and Out and Say Like Rilke: I Do Kneel in Wonder: Layered Mound in Juventae Chasma: Where Is It: On Mars Just North of the Valles Marineris

 

 

|| October 28: 2018 || ά. This striking view of layered sediments on Mars was captured by the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter’s Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System, CaSSIS, on October 02, 2018. The image, which covers an area 25x07 km wide, focuses on a layered mound in Juventae Chasma, just north of the Valles Marineris.

The features in the chasmata around Valles Marineris have been well studied by Mars orbiters, including, European Space Agency:ESA’s Mars Express and NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter:MRO. The CRISM instrument on MRO detected a significant amount of sulphates at the base of the mound shown in this image, a composition that points to the presence of water in the distant past.

The new image from CaSSIS shows the beautiful sedimentary layers in high resolution, allowing scientists to explore the correlation between colour as seen by the camera and composition as determined by previous measurements to better understand how these minerals were deposited in the area.

Patterns in the layering can, also, serve as a record of climate, further constraining the type of environment in which this feature formed and shedding light on the history of this stunning landscape.

The ExoMars programme is a joint endeavour between ESA and Roscosmos.

Image: ESA:Roscosmos:CaSSIS, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO:::ω.

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The Martian Atmosphere: One and Whole Inter-Connected System

 

 

|| July 18: 2018 || ά. New research, using a decade of data from ESA’s Mars Express, has found clear signs of the complex martian atmosphere acting as a single, inter-connected system, with processes occurring at low and mid levels significantly affecting those seen higher up. Understanding the martian atmosphere is a key topic in planetary science, from its current status to its past history. Mars’ atmosphere continuously leaks out to space and is a crucial factor in the planet’s past, present and future habitability or lack of it. Or, unless we learn enough to find out the mechanics, that will allow us to create the habitability-matrix, that will allow human habitation and exploration of Mars and beyond from there.

The planet has lost the majority of its once much denser and wetter atmosphere, causing it to evolve into the dry, arid world we see today. However, the tenuous atmosphere Mars has retained remains complex and scientists are working to understand, if and how the processes within it are connected over space and time. A new study based on 10 years of data from the radar instrument on Mars Express now offers clear evidence of a sought-after link between the upper and lower atmospheres of the planet. While best known for probing the interior of Mars via radar sounding, the instrument has, also, gathered observations of the martian ionosphere since it began operating in 2005.

“The lower and middle levels of Mars’ atmosphere appear to be coupled to the upper levels: there’s a clear link between them throughout the martian year.” says the Lead Author Ms Beatriz Sánchez-Cano of the University of Leicester, UK.

“We found this link by tracking the amount of electrons in the upper atmosphere, a property, that has been measured by the MARSIS radar for over a decade across different seasons, areas of Mars, times of day and more and correlating it with the atmospheric parameters measured by other instruments on Mars Express.’’

The amount of charged particles in Mars’ upper atmosphere, at altitudes of between 100 and 200 km, is known to change with season and local time, driven by changes in solar illumination and activity and, crucially, for this study, the varying composition and density of the atmosphere itself. But the scientists found more changes than they were expecting.

“We discovered a surprising and significant increase in the amount of charged particles in the upper atmosphere during springtime in the Northern hemisphere, which is when the mass in the lower atmosphere is growing as ice sublimates from the northern polar cap.” Says Ms Sánchez-Cano.

Mars’ polar caps are made up of a mix of water ice and frozen carbon dioxide. Each winter, up to a third of the mass in Mars’ atmosphere condenses to form an icy layer at each of the planet’s poles. Every spring, some of the mass within these caps sublimates to re-join the atmosphere and the caps visibly shrink as a result.

“This sublimation process was thought to, mostly, only, affect the lower atmosphere, we didn’t expect to see its effects clearly propagating upwards to higher levels.” says Co-author Mr Olivier Witasse of the European Space Agency and former ESA Project Scientist for Mars Express.

“It’s very interesting to find a connection like this.” The finding suggests that the atmosphere of Mars behaves as a single system. This could, potentially, help scientists to understand how Mars’ atmosphere evolves over time, not only with respect to external disturbances, such as, space weather and the activity of the Sun but, also, with respect to Mars’ own strong internal variability and surface processes.

Understanding the complex atmosphere of Mars is one of the key objectives of ESA’s Mars Express mission, which has been operating in orbit around the Red Planet since 2003. “Mars Express is still going strong, with one of its current key objectives being to explore exactly how the martian atmosphere behaves and how different layers of it are connected to one another.” says ESA Mars Express Project Scientist Mr Dmitri Titov. 

“Having a long baseline of data is fundamental to our study of Mars, there’s now over a decade of observations to work with. These data don’t just cover a long time period but, also, the entirety of Mars and its atmosphere.

This wealth of comprehensive and complementary observations by different instruments on Mars Express makes studies like this one possible and, together with ESA’s Trace Gas Orbiter and NASA’s MAVEN mission, is helping us to unravel the secrets of the martian atmosphere.” :::ω.

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Mars Mission Launched to Study the Interior of the Red Planet: See You on November 26

 

 

|| May 05: 2018 || ά. NASA’s Mars Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport or InSight mission is on a 300-million-mile trip to Mars to study, for the first time, what lies deep beneath the surface of the Red Planet. InSight launched at 07:05 EDT, 04:05 PDT, Saturday from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. “The United States continues to lead the way to Mars with this next exciting mission to study the Red Planet’s core and geological processes.” said NASA Administrator Mr Jim Bridenstine.

“I want to congratulate all the teams from NASA and our international partners, who made this accomplishment possible. As we continue to gain momentum in our work to send astronauts back to the Moon and on to Mars, missions like InSight are going to prove invaluable.” First reports indicate the United Launch Alliance:ULA, Atlas V rocket, that carried InSight into space was seen as far south as Carlsbad, California and as far east as Oracle, Arizona. One person recorded a video of the launch from a private aircraft flying along the California coast.

Riding the Centaur second stage of the rocket, the spacecraft reached orbit 13 minutes and 16 seconds after launch. Seventy-nine minutes later, the Centaur ignited a second time, sending InSight on a trajectory towards the Red Planet. InSight separated from the Centaur 14 minutes later, 93 minutes after launch and contacted the spacecraft via NASA’s Deep Space Network at 08:41.

“The Kennedy Space Centre and ULA teams gave us a great ride today and started InSight on our six-and-a-half-month journey to Mars.” said Mr Tom Hoffman, InSight Project Manager at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory:JPL in Pasadena, California. “We’ve received positive indication the InSight spacecraft is in good health and we are all excited to be going to Mars once again to do groundbreaking science.”

With its successful launch, NASA’s InSight team now is focusing on the six-month voyage. During the cruise phase of the mission, engineers will check out the spacecraft’s subsystems and science instruments, making sure its solar arrays and antenna are oriented properly, tracking its trajectory and performing manoeuvres to keep it on course.

InSight is scheduled to land on the Red Planet around 15:00 EST November 26, where it will conduct science operations until November 24, 2020, which equates to one year and 40 days on Mars or, nearly, two Earth years. “Scientists have been dreaming about doing seismology on Mars for years. In my case, I had that dream 40 years ago as a graduate student and now that shared dream has been lofted through the clouds and into reality.” said Mr Bruce Banerdt, InSight Principal Investigator at JPL.

The InSight lander will probe and collect data on marsquakes, heat flow from the planet’s interior and the way the planet wobbles, to help scientists understand what makes Mars tick and the processes, that shaped the four rocky planets of our inner solar system. “InSight will not only teach us about Mars, it will enhance our understanding of formation of other rocky worlds like Earth and the Moon and thousands of planets around other stars.” said Mr Thomas Zurbuchen, Associate Administrator for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate at the agency headquarters in Washington. "InSight connects science and technology with a diverse team of JPL-led international and commercial partners."

Previous missions to Mars investigated the surface history of the Red Planet by examining features like canyons, volcanoes, rocks and soil but no one has attempted to investigate the planet's earliest evolution, which can only be found by looking far below the surface. “InSight will help us unlock the mysteries of Mars in a new way, by not just studying the surface of the planet but by looking deep inside to help us learn about the earliest building blocks of the planet.” said JPL Director Mr Michael Watkins.

JPL manages InSight for NASA's Science Mission Directorate. InSight is part of NASA's Discovery Programme, managed by the agency's Marshall Space Flight Centre in Huntsville, Alabama. The InSight spacecraft, including, cruise stage and lander, was built and tested by Lockheed Martin Space in Denver. NASA's Launch Services Programme at the agency's Kennedy Space Centre in Florida is responsible for launch service acquisition, integration, analysis, and launch management. United Launch Alliance of Centennial, Colorado, is NASA's launch service provider.

A number of European partners, including, France's Centre National d'Études Spatiales:CNES and the German Aerospace Centre:DLR are supporting the InSight mission. CNES provided the Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure:SEIS instrument, with significant contributions from the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research:MPS in Göttingen, Germany. DLR provided the Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package:HP3 instrument.

For more information about InSight visit

Dwayne Brown: JoAnna Wendel: Headquarters, Washington: 202-358-1726:358-1003: wayne.c.brown at nasa.gov: joanna.r.wendel at nasa.gov
D.C. Agle:Andrew Good:Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California: 818-354-5011: agle at jpl.nasa.gov:andrew.c.good at jpl.nasa.gov

: Editor: Katherine Brown: NASA:

 

 

 

 

Say With This Celestial Ring We are One: One We are With This Celestial-Bond

 

|| February 14: 2018 || ά. Now, here is this bright and beautiful celestial ring. And whose is it, this ring? Or, rather, who is the architect of this formation or who the participants are in this cosmic geometric alliance? Glimmering with colour and light against a pitch-black sky, this ring was seen during the eclipse, that took place on August 21, 2017 across the USA. This event was a total solar eclipse, meaning that the Moon slipped perfectly in front of the Sun and blocked the entirety of the star’s light, an occurrence, known as, totality, for a band of observers across the country.

The shadow of the eclipse took 01.5 hours to cross the USA, moving from Oregon to South Carolina and gave eager eclipse-watchers within the totality belt up to 160 seconds of total darkness. This snapshot was captured during an eclipse expedition to the USA as part of ESA’s Co-operation Through Education in Science and Astronomy Research:CESAR educational initiative. CESAR engages students in the wonders of science and technology, astronomy in particular. The expedition team organised a special event on eclipse day and delivered a broadcast, including, eclipse footage and talks with experts.

Totality for the team occurred at precisely 10:42 local time in Casper, Wyoming at 17:42 GMT; this image was taken moments after totality ended and the Moon continued along its path through the sky.

The eclipse’s likeness to a diamond ring is a well-documented effect within astronomy and seen often in solar eclipses. It is known as, predictably, either the diamond ring effect or the Baily’s beads effect. The beads refer to the tiny pearls and droplets of sunlight, that can be seen forming around the Moon’s dark outline. When the Moon moves on enough for the beads to draw together and form a more solid and extended band of light, Baily’s beads are said to have formed the diamond ring effect as seen here. 
ω.

Caption: Diamond ring: Image: ESA: CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO

Whatever Your Field of Work and Wherever in the World You are, Please, Make a Choice to Do All You Can to Seek and Demand the End of Death Penalty For It is Your Business What is Done in Your Name. The Law That Makes Humans Take Part in Taking Human Lives and That Permits and Kills Human Lives is No Law. It is the Rule of the Jungle Where Law Does Not Exist. The Humanion

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Mission Possible: By the Sun But Not So Close

 

|| February 03: 2018 || ά. Living near a star is a risky business but positioning a spacecraft near the Sun is a very good way to observe rapidly changing solar activity and deliver early warning of possibly harmful space weather. ESA is now looking at doing just that. On most days, our normally calm Sun goes about its business, delivering a steady and predictable amount of heat and light that keeps planet Earth and its humans ticking. But just as the Sun drives weather on Earth, solar activity is responsible for disturbances in our space environment or the space weather.

Besides emitting a continuous stream of electrically charged atomic particles, the Sun, periodically, sneezes out billions of tonnes of material threaded with magnetic fields in colossal-scale ‘coronal mass ejections’. These immense clouds of matter usually miss Earth but if one reaches us it can disrupt Earth’s protective magnetic bubble and upper atmosphere, affecting satellites in orbit, navigation, terrestrial power grids, and data and communication networks, among other effects.vObtaining warnings of such events would be immensely helpful: a recent ESA study estimated the potential impact in Europe from a single, extreme space weather event could be about €15 billion.

As just one example, even, moderate space weather events can affect electrical power grids that supply electricity to homes, hospitals and schools. Improved warning times for larger events would allow grid operators to take measures to protect their networks and ensure continued power delivery.

“One of the best ways to observe rapidly changing solar activity is to position a dedicated spacecraft slightly away from our direct line to the Sun, so that it can observe the ‘side’ of our star before it rotates into view.” says Mr Juha-Pekka Luntama, responsible for space weather at ESA’s mission control centre, Darmstadt, Germany.

One of these, the 5th Lagrange point, lags 60º degrees behind Earth in its orbit, an ideal location for monitoring mass ejections from the ‘side’ so as to give early warning and better estimates of the speed and direction.

“L5 is an excellent spot for a future ESA space weather mission because it gives advance views of what’s happening at the Sun.” says Mr Luntama. “The spacecraft would provide crucial data, that will help us spot Earth-arriving ejections, improve our forecasts of the arrival time at Earth and provide advance knowledge of active regions on the Sun as they rotate into view.”

Today, ESA began studies to examine exactly this concept. Four European industrial and scientific consortiums, including, leading experts on space systems and instrument design will develop concepts for flying a mission to L5.

Based on the results, ESA will select a final design in about 18 months. This space weather mission would provide data for operational applications, such as, forecasts and nowcasts of solar activity.

These are part of ESA’s Space Weather Service Network, which will issue warnings and alerts to scientific, commercial and civil customers when solar activity poses any risk to critical civil and economic activities. ω.

Caption:  Lagrange points: Image: NASA:WMAP Science Team

Whatever Your Field of Work and Wherever in the World You are, Please, Make a Choice to Do All You Can to Seek and Demand the End of Death Penalty For It is Your Business What is Done in Your Name. The Law That Makes Humans Take Part in Taking Human Lives and That Permits and Kills Human Lives is No Law. It is the Rule of the Jungle Where Law Does Not Exist. The Humanion

Caption: The ExoMars Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System, CaSSIS, captured this view of the rim of Korolev crater, 73.3ºN:165.9ºE, on  April 15, 2018. The image is a composite of three images in different colours that were taken almost simultaneously. They were then assembled to produce this colour view. The original image has a nominal scale of 05.08 m:pixel and was re-projected at a resolution of 04.6 m:pixel to create the final version. The dimensions are, therefore, about 10 x 40 km. The image was taken with a ground-track velocity of 02.90 km:s. The solar incidence angle was 76.6º at a local solar time of 07:14:11. In this orientation, north is off-centre to the upper left. ExoMars images Korolev Crater: Released 26.04.2018: 14:30: Image: ESA:Roscosmos:CaSSIS ::: ω. 

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Eden Eye: Look We Have Got a Visitor

 

|| October 27: 2017 || ά. A small, recently discovered asteroid or, perhaps, a comet, appears to have originated from outside the solar system, coming from somewhere else into our galaxy. If so, it would be the first interstellar object to be observed and confirmed by astronomers. This unusual object, for now designated A2017U1, is less than a quarter-mile or 400 metres in diameter and is moving remarkably fast. Astronomers are urgently working to point telescopes around the world and in space at this notable object. Once these data are obtained and analysed, astronomers, may, know more about the origin and, possibly, composition of the object. The NASA's Centre for Near-Earth Object Studies:CNEOS team plotted the object's current trajectory and even looked into its future. A2017U1 came from the direction of the constellation Lyra, cruising through interstellar space at a brisk clip of 15.8 miles or 25.5 kilometres per second.

The object approached our solar system from almost directly above the ecliptic, the approximate plane in space, where the planets and most asteroids orbit the Sun, so it did not have any close encounters with the eight major planets during its plunge toward the Sun. On September 02, the small body crossed under the ecliptic plane just inside of Mercury's orbit and then made its closest approach to the Sun on September 09. Pulled by the Sun's gravity, the object made a hairpin turn under our solar system, passing under Earth's orbit on October 14 at a distance of about 15 million miles or 24 million kilometres, about 60 times the distance to the Moon. It has now shot back up above the plane of the planets and travelling at 27 miles per second or 44 kilometre per second with respect to the Sun, the object is speeding toward the constellation Pegasus. 

A2017U1 was discovered October 19 by the University of Hawaii's Pan-STARRS One telescope on Haleakala, Hawaii, during the course of its nightly search for near-Earth objects for NASA. Dr Rob Weryk, a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy:IFA, was first to identify the moving object and submit it to the Minor Planet Centre. Dr Weryk subsequently searched the Pan-STARRS image archive and found it, also, was in images taken the previous night, but was not, initially, identified by the moving object processing. Dr Weryk immediately realised that that was an unusual object.

"Its motion could not be explained using either a normal solar system asteroid or comet orbit." he said. Dr Weryk contacted IFA graduate Mr Marco Micheli, who had the same realisation, using his own follow-up images, taken at the European Space Agency's telescope on Tenerife in the Canary Islands. ''But with the combined data, everything made sense.'' said Dr Weryk, "This object came from outside our solar system." 

"This is the most extreme orbit I have ever seen." said Mr Davide Farnocchia, a scientist at NASA's Centre for Near-Earth Object Studies:CNEOS at the agency's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. "It is going extremely fast and on such a trajectory that we can say with confidence that this object is on its way out of the solar system and not coming back."

"We have long suspected that these objects should exist, because during the process of planet formation a lot of material should be ejected from planetary systems. What's most surprising is that we've never seen interstellar objects pass through before." said Ms Karen Meech, an astronomer at the IFA, specialising in small bodies and their connection to solar system formation.

The small body has been assigned the temporary designation A2017U1 by the Minor Planet Centre:MPC in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where all observations on small bodies in our solar system and now those just passing through, are collected. "This kind of discovery demonstrates the great scientific value of continual wide-field surveys of the sky, coupled with intensive follow-up observations, to find things we wouldn't otherwise know are there." aid MPC Director Mr Matt Holman,

Since this is the first object of its type ever discovered, rules for naming this type of object will need to be established by the International Astronomical Union. "We have been waiting for this day for decades." said CNEOS Manager Mr Paul Chodas. "It's long been theorised that such objects exist, asteroids or comets moving around between the stars and, occasionally, passing through our solar system but this is the first such detection. So far, everything indicates this is likely an interstellar object, but more data would help to confirm it."

DC Agle: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif: 818-393-9011: agle at jpl.nasa.gov 

Laurie Cantillo:Dwayne Brown: NASA Headquarters, Washington: 202-358-1077:202-358-1726: laura.l.cantillo at nasa.gov: dwayne.c.brown at nasa.gov 

Roy Gal: University of Hawaii, Institute for Astronomy: 301-728-8637: roygal at hawaii.edu: 2017-278

: Editor: Tony Greicius: NASA: ω.

Image: A still, taken from this animation showing the path of A2017U1, which is an asteroid or, perhaps, a comet, as it passed through our inner solar system in September and October 2017. From analysis of its motion, scientists calculate that it, probably, originated from outside of our solar system. NASA:JPL-Caltech

Whatever Your Field of Work and Wherever in the World You are, Please, Make a Choice to Do All You Can to Seek and Demand the End of Death Penalty For It is Your Business What is Done in Your Name. The Law That Makes Humans Take Part in Taking Human Lives and That Permits and Kills Human Lives is No Law. It is the Rule of the Jungle Where Law Does Not Exist. The Humanion

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This Beautiful Piece of Work of Mother Nature Should Be in a Space Museum But Instead It is in an Auction: The Muonionalusta

 

|| October 21: 2017 || ά. This beautiful piece of work of Mother Nature, and she does not just reside on earth but across the spread of the Universe, from some space and place of that Universe, this space-gift arrived on earth and fell to a town in Pajalam Norrbotten, Sweden, where the meteorite was discovered in the early 20th century. And apparently, it is supposed to be four billion years old. And this beautiful natural object should, one would imagine, be forming part of a natural history museum or space museum exhibits. Instead, it is being auctioned, by Catawaki, which has put it up for bidding, that is going on until 20:00, Sunday, October 22 for a supposed price of £19,000. Now, here is the philosophical paradox: how on earth can we put a 'price' to something, that what no one on earth has created or has anything to do with? Who decided that it is worth £19,000?

How did they arrive at this conclusion that, that what no one can own because simply it does not and can not belong to anyone, has a price and that someone does own it so that that someone is selling it? This piece, should be given to a museum and any money raised should be given to a charity, whoever has been lucky enough to have found it and claimed 'ownership', because no one can own this natural object for it does not and can not belong to anyone. It can not have a price as the Atlantic or Pacific Ocean does not have a price, as the sky does not have a price, as the moon, that appears on our window, has no price for they have 'value', that can not be 'translated' into a 'currency'. Therefore, The Humanion calls on the person:s, who have put this item on auction to return it to a Museum. The meteorite, which was found in Sweden, is probably one of the oldest items ever to have been put on auction. At first sight, the object looks like a large rock, but is in fact, an iron meteorite of the type of octahedral rite, from the world-renowned Muonionalusta meteorites collection.

If, one has £19,000 to spare, than one can bid for it today, on online auction house Catawiki. "Holding this kind of auction is great fun for Catawiki. The meteorite is, after all, a bit of Swedish space history. The question is, whether the person, who buys it is from Sweden or whether the meteorite will have to be transported to somewhere else in the world." says Mr Claes Hain, Country Manager for Catawiki in the Nordic region. 

Other existing meteorites are housed in well-known museums around the world, but few of these are as large and expensive as the heavyweight going under the hammer. The meteorite weighs a full 26.5 kilos and, besides, the rarity of item itself, the buyer, also, receives a certificate that guarantees the authenticity. 

The auction ends this Sunday at 20:00 and the item can be viewed on the Catawaki website.

Well, every day hundreds of tons of matter fall to the earth, but meteorites land in Sweden once every two years. Witnessing a meteorite fall is incredibly rare, annually only three-four occasions are reported around the world. The prices of meteorites vary depending on size and variety, but overall, the space stones are considered a good investment.

Among the more expensive, the price per gram is estimated to be as much as 40 times more than the corresponding price of gold. But what the people conversant with putting a 'price' to everything are not mindful of is this: that there are much more 'valuable' things on heaven and earth than gold, diamond and any other jewels: humanity. ω.

Whatever Your Field of Work and Wherever in the World You are, Please, Make a Choice to Do All You Can to Seek and Demand the End of Death Penalty For It is Your Business What is Done in Your Name. The Law That Makes Humans Take Part in Taking Human Lives and That Permits and Kills Human Lives is No Law. It is the Rule of the Jungle Where Law Does Not Exist. The Humanion

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For Stories Published in The Sunnara in The Year Gamma Arkive

 

Life's Laurel Is You In One-Line-Poetry A Heaven-Bound Propagated Ray Of Light Off The Eye Of The Book Of Life: Love For You Are Only Once

 

 

Life: You Are The Law The Flow The Glow: In Joys In Hurts You Are The Vine-Songs On The Light-Trellis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

|| All copyrights @ The Humanion: London: England: United Kingdom || Contact: The Humanion: editor at thehumanion.com || Regine Humanics Foundation Ltd: reginehumanics at reginehumanicsfoundation.com || Editor: Munayem Mayenin || First Published: September 24: 2015 ||
|| Regine Humanics Foundation Ltd: A Human Enterprise: Registered as a Not For Profit Social Enterprise in England and Wales: Company No: 11346648 ||