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The Entire Spectrum of Colours and All the Forms, Manners and Expressions of Light are Made Invisible in This White: Or, Rather, Mix All the Colours and You Have This White: Or, Arrange All the Colours and Find an Infinite Rainbow: Or Take the Colours and Light Away and There Resides the Darkness But As Such That in Its Invisible Sphere There Still Remains Another Infinite Rainbow at Various States, That We Can Not See With Our Eyes: Take That All Away and You Have the Utter, Absolute and Primeval Duantum Darkness Within Which Our Matter Universe is Constructed and Does Function: Unless, We Remember This Every Nano-Second of Our Existence We Loose Our Sense and Joy of Eternal Wonder, Awe and Astonishment of This Magnificent Universe, Which is Outside, True, But Which is Nano-Seismically Constructed in the Human Physiology and Psychology: The Study of Medicine Will Always Remain and Fall Short Until It Sees and Learns That It is Dealing with the Universe, When It Goes About Learning and Healing This Human Physiology and Psychology: Alphansum Sovereign Necessarius: Munayem Mayenin


Leuven University Researchers Develop Promising Vaccine Against Zika Virus





|| January 17: 2019: Leuven University News || ά. Scientists at the KU Leuven Rega Institute have developed a new vaccine against the Zika virus. This vaccine should prevent the virus from causing microcephaly and other serious conditions in unborn babies. In 2015 and 2016, the world was shocked by the sudden and massive outbreak of the Zika virus in Latin America. “The Zika virus is transmitted by the tiger mosquito and, in most cases, the patient experiences no or only mild symptoms.” says Professor Johan Neyts. “But when a pregnant woman contracts the virus, this can affect the brain development of the foetus.

It can lead to microcephaly whereby the infant has a smaller-than-average head but, also, mental and other severe health issues.” The outbreak of the virus in Latin America is currently under control. However, the virus remains present in Latin America and in other areas with tiger mosquitoes and there can be a new outbreak at any time. Therefore, scientists across the world are looking for an effective vaccine. It now appears that Professor Neyts, Dr Kai Dallmeier and their team have developed such a vaccine. “To do so, we made use of the Yellow Fever Vaccine. The Yellow Fever virus is closely related to the Zika virus and is transmitted by the same mosquito. The vaccine is very safe and offers lifelong protection.

Our vaccine remains stable, even, at high temperatures. This makes a world of difference when a vaccine is to be used in the most remote corners of the world. We replaced a piece of the genetic information of the Yellow Fever Vaccine with the corresponding code of the Zika virus. To engineer the vaccine, we used a new technology, that we’d developed earlier in our lab and that makes it possible to produce the vaccine in fermenters, instead of in fertilised chicken eggs.

Another important advantage is that the vaccine remains stable, even, at high temperatures. This makes a world of difference for a vaccine, that is, also, intended for use in the most remote corners of tropical and sub-tropical areas.

Together with the University of Liège, we, then, explored whether the vaccine was effective in pregnant mice. The vaccine was administered to female mice and, when these mice were a few days pregnant, the Zika virus was injected into their placenta. The pups of vaccinated mothers developed normally and the virus, also, couldn't be found in their brains or other organs.”

‘’This complete protection is remarkable. We, now, intend to further develop the vaccine, which could, then, be used to quickly and effectively vaccinate the population in case of a new outbreak of the Zika virus. This should prevent a lot of suffering."  says Dr Kai Dallmeier

This study was supported by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme:::ω.

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More Donor Livers Could Be Used for Transplantation Due to the Development of Perfusion Machine




|| January 16: 2019 || ά. A procedure, assessed by the National Institute for National Health and Care Excellence:NICE, has been hailed as an exciting development in increasing the number of livers, which can be safely used for transplantation. A perfusion machine can keep the donated liver viable for transplantation for longer. The machine reduces the rate of tissue deterioration, that occurs after the liver has been removed from the donor and extends how long the liver can be stored before transplantation.

Variations of the technique can, also, allow the liver to be flushed with blood at body temperature and supplied with oxygen, medications and nutrients, allowing its viability and function to be assessed. It is hoped that the machine perfusion could increase the number of organs viable for transplant, saving more lives and reducing liver transplant waiting lists. Liver transplantation is a highly successful treatment for end-stage liver disease, which kills 11,000 people a year in England.

Deaths from liver disease have soared by 25 per cent in a decade and continue to rise, while the average age of death from liver disease, currently 50-59 years, continues to decrease. Today, Wednesday, January 16, NICE has issued final guidance, which recommends the procedure, ex-vivo machine perfusion for extra-corporeal preservation of livers for transplantation, is used under special arrangements as more data is gathered into its efficacy.

NICE’s independent advisory committee did not identify any major safety concerns. Surgeons, undertaking the procedure, must, inform patients about the uncertainty of the procedure’s efficacy, comply with the relevant regulatory and legal requirements of the Human Tissue Authority and should enter details about all patients having this procedure into the NHSBT UK transplant registry.

Professor Kevin Harris, the Programme Director and Clinical Advisor for the Interventional Procedures Programme at NICE, said, “This procedure offers hope for patients, needing a liver transplant. It offers another way of preserving the liver and assessing whether livers, which, might have, previously, been considered unsuitable, can be used safely.

The latest evidence reviewed by a NICE committee concluded that the procedure worked well and was safe to be offered to patients, who had been fully informed of the risks and benefits. Clinicians should seek approval from their trust’s management and record all data from the procedure in a database.

By using this procedure, more patients on the organ transplant waiting list could be offered a chance of a transplant and thereby, potentially, extending their lives.”

Ms Sue Bennett, 45, a mother of three from Ranton in Staffordshire, had a liver transplant using this new technique in 2015. She said, “I signed up for the trial not knowing I would be one of the first to have this procedure in the country. Before my transplant I was very ill. I was losing weight, I couldn’t sleep and my quality of life was quite low.

I had a transplant after the hospital found a donor, who was a match. The liver was kept alive using this procedure overnight and I was able to have the operation the following day. Nine days later I was back home. Having a transplant has changed my life. I‘ve joined the gym, got fit and gone back to work and did some voluntary work for the Staffordshire Search and Rescue team and, I, also, compete nationally and internationally in the Transplant Games as a member of the Team GB transplant team. My life is unbelievably wonderful. I’m very healthy, I’m very happy and very active. I think, I‘ve been very lucky.”

Professor Darius Mirza, of Hepatobiliary and Transplant Surgery at the University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, said, "In the 30 years I've been involved with transplantation, there have been three or four events, which have been game changers and I'm absolutely certain we are looking at a game changer, that will change the way we practice organ storage and transplantation.

It is, already, changing practice at the centres, that have been able to use this technology either within clinical trials or within an expansion of service evaluation."

Mr John Forsythe, the Associate Medical Director at NHS Blood and Transplant, said, “There has been a huge amount of research in the area of preservation and perfusion methods, that allow us to, both, assess precious donor organs and to enhance their function. This could, potentially, mean the organ works better and improve transplant outcomes.

Many of the lead researchers in the area of transplant preservation and perfusion techniques are in UK and it is good to see UK researchers continue to be at the forefront in this field. Transplantation wouldn’t be possible without the generosity of organ donors and their families.”

Ms Vanessa Hebditch, the Director of Policy at the British Liver Trust, said, “Every year hundreds of people with advanced liver disease die whilst waiting for a transplant. This new device offers real hope, as it, may, improve transplant outcomes and allow livers, that were previously thought to be unsuitable to be used and, also, increase the time that livers are able to be kept.

It is an exciting development, that has the potential to shorten waiting list times and reduce mortality rates from advanced liver disease. After transplant, the vast majority of people go on to lead full and healthy lives and it is truly amazing to see the transformation.”

NHS England and commissioners will decide whether they fund the procedure. However, research is, already, taking place at the University of Birmingham and Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham and other transplant centres across the country.

For the financial year ending March 31, 2018, there were 1,043 liver transplants in the UK and 359 patients on the UK active transplant list, according to NHS Blood and Transplant.

The number of patients on the active transplant list reached a ten year high in 2015 when 611 patients were on the waiting list. However, the large drop attributed to the 2018 figure, may be, due to the introduction of the National Liver Offering Scheme:NLOS in March 2018.:::ω.

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Streptomyces Sp Myrophorea: From Far or Near Fermanagh Depending on How You Look They Have Dug Me Up to Do Some Good: New Bacteria Discovered in Ancient Irish Soil Halts the Growth of Antibiotic-Resistant Superbugs




|| January 14: 2019: Swansea University News || ά. Researchers, analysing soil from Northern Ireland, which was long thought to have medicinal properties, have discovered that it contained a previously unknown strain of bacteria, which is effective against four of the top six superbugs, that are resistant to antibiotics, including, MRSA. Antibiotic resistant superbugs could kill up to 01.3 million people in Europe by 2050, according to recent research.

The World Health Organisation:WHO describes the problem as ‘one of the biggest threats to global health, food security and development today’. The new strain of bacteria was discovered by a team of researchers, based in Swansea University Medical School, made up of researchers from Wales, Brazil, Iraq and Northern Ireland. They have named the new strain Streptomyces Sp Myrophorea. The soil they analysed originated from an area of Fermanagh, Northern Ireland, which is known as, the Boho Highlands. It is an area of alkaline grassland and the soil is reputed to have healing properties.

The search for replacement antibiotics to combat multi-resistance has prompted researchers to explore new sources, including, folk medicines: a field of study, known as, ethnopharmacology. They are, also, focusing on environments where well-known antibiotic producers like Streptomyces can be found. One of the research team, Dr Gerry Quinn, a previous resident of Boho, County Fermanagh, had been aware of the healing traditions of the area for many years. 

Traditionally, a small amount of soil was wrapped up in cotton cloth and used to heal many ailments, including, toothache, throat and neck infections. Interestingly, this area was previously occupied by the Druids, around 1,500 years ago and Neolithic people 4,000 years ago.

The main findings of the research were that the newly-identified strain of Streptomyces: Inhibited the growth of four of the top six multi-resistant pathogens, identified by the WHO as being responsible for healthcare-associated infections:  Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium:VRE,  methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus:MRSA, Klebsiella pneumonia and Carbenepenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumanii

Inhibited both gram positive and gram negative bacteria, which differ in the structure of their cell wall; usually, gram negative bacteria are more resistant to antibiotics

It is not yet clear which component of the new strain prevents the growth of the pathogens but the researchers are already investigating this.

Professor Paul Dyson, of Swansea University Medical School, said, "This new strain of bacteria is effective against four of the top six pathogens, that are resistant to antibiotics, including, MRSA. Our discovery is an important step forward in the fight against antibiotic resistance.

Our results show that folklore and traditional medicines are worth investigating in the search for new antibiotics. Scientists, historians and archaeologists can all have something to contribute to this task. It seems that part of the answer to this very modern problem, might, lie in the wisdom of the past.”

Dr Gerry Quinn, from the research team, said, “The discovery of anti-microbial substances from Streptomyces Sp. Myrophorea will help in our search for new drugs to treat multi-resistant bacteria, the cause of many dangerous and lethal infections.

We will now concentrate on the purification and identification of these antibiotics. We have, also, discovered additional antibacterial organisms from the same soil cure, which, may, cover a broader spectrum of multi-resistant pathogens."

The Paper: A Novel Alkaliphilic Streptomyces Inhibits ESKAPE Pathogens: Luciana Terra, Paul J. Dyson, Matthew D. Hitchings, Liam Thomas, Alyaa Abdelhameed, Ibrahim M. Banat, Salvatore A. Gazze1, Dušica Vujaklija, Paul D. Facey, Lewis W. Francis and Gerry A. Quinn: Published in Frontiers in Microbiology

Caption: Countryside in Northern Ireland; soil from here contains bacteria that halt the growth of superbugs, Swansea University researchers have shown: Image: Swansea University.:::ω.

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New Drug Has the Potential to Treat Onchocerciasis and Lymphatic Filariasis




|| January 09: 2019: University of Liverpool News || ά. Researchers from the University of Liverpool and Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine have successfully optimised a hit from a whole cell screening of a 10,000-compound library to deliver the first fully synthetic and rationally designed anti-Wolbachia drug, AWZ1066S, which could, potentially, be used to treat Onchocerciasis and Lymphatic Filariasis. Onchocerciasis, also, known as, River Blindness and Lymphatic Filariasis, also, known as, Elephantiasis, are neglected tropical diseases, caused by filarial parasites, that can lead to severe disability.

The inability of current drugs to kill adult parasites has highlighted the urgent need for new curative anti-filarial drugs for these debilitating diseases. In the search for new anti-filarial drugs, the research team has focussed on targeting Wolbachia, a bacterial symbiont, that is essential for parasite development and survival. Although, the anti-filarial drug, Doxycycline has been proven effective clinically through the depletion of Wolbachia, the treatment regimens are protracted and contradictions restrict its widespread implementation. Professor Steve Ward, the Deputy Director of LSTM, said, “The identification represents the first potential designer drug of its kind, specifically, targeting Wolbachia as a curative treatment for Onchocerciasis and Lymphatic Filariasis.

The candidate selection status of this compound represents the successful conclusion to a multi-disciplinary teams efforts to generate the first synthetic drug, specifically, developed to target this bacteria and we are really excited to take the compound to the next stage of its development. Over 157 million people globally are affected by Onchocerciasis and Lymphatic Filariasis, this particular molecule has the potential to shorten that timescale of treatments from weeks to days, which could, significantly, impact the international timetable for the elimination of these two neglected tropical diseases.”

Professor Paul O’Neill from the University’s Department of Chemistry said, “The novel synthetic molecule, AWZ1066S, was designed and developed at Liverpool from screening hits and involved multi-parameter chemical optimisation with evaluation of over 400 analogues.

Our approach has provided a molecule with high potency and specificity against the target pathogen along with desired oral drug properties. A key to the success of the programme was a combination of our in-house expertise in medicinal chemistry in parallel to a close working relationship with our industrial partner Eisai Ltd with additional support from AstraZeneca. This enabled development of this drug in a very short time frame.” 

AWZ1066S’s high specificity is a significant advantage, resulting in minimal impact on the gut microbiota and the selection and emergence of resistance following the administration to patients, unlike other anti-Wolbachia based broad spectrum antibiotic treatments. Furthermore, it has a faster kill rate compared to other known antibiotics tested against Wolbachia in vitro, suggesting that the time-frame for treatment delivery could be fewer than seven days.

This study presents AWZ1066S as a candidate molecule for depleting Wolbachia, warranting further study to improve treatment options and, as such, this drug will, now, enter formal pre-clinical evaluation. This novel compound provides a unique opportunity to make a significant contribution to communities affected by Filariasis, especially, if, the predicted macrofilaricidal effect can be confirmed in clinical trials.  These alternative strategies are needed urgently to reach the goal of Onchocerciasis and Lymphatic Filariasis elimination.

The starting point for the work emerged from screening activities of the A∙WOL programme, funded through the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and directed by LSTM’s Professor Mark Taylor. Professor Taylor said, “The anti-Wolbachia strategy has proved to be a paradigm changing therapeutic approach to treatment. 

The re-purposing of drugs already licenced and the discovery of new compounds through screening during the 10 years of A∙WOL’s initial work has been taken up as an alternative strategy where MDA is compromised. The further development of AWZ1066S represents another step forward in bringing relief to many millions of people.”

The Paper: AWZ1066S, a highly specific anti-Wolbachia drug candidate for a short-course treatment of filariasis: Published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.:::ω.

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The Newly Discovered Diverse Wolbachia Strains Could Lead to the Reduction in the Transmission of Malaria




|| December 24: 2018: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine News || ά. The discovery of new Wolbachia bacteria strains in Anopheles malaria vectors could lead to the reduction in the transmission of malaria, according to a study published in Wellcome Open Research, which was led by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Wolbachia is a common insect bacterium, that can reduce a mosquito’s ability to spread viruses to people. If, an infected mosquito breeds with uninfected ones it passes on the bug to future generations.

Wolbachia has, historically, been considered absent from the Anopheles genera but, has, recently, been found in An. Gambiae populations in West Africa. Preliminary trials undertaken by the World Mosquito Programme have involved releasing Wolbachia-infected Ae. Aegypti mosquitoes into wild mosquito populations in dengue endemic countries, preventing the replication of arboviruses, such as, Dengue and Zika virus. Since, there are numerous Anopheles species, that have the capacity to transmit malaria, the Study, funded by Wellcome and Royal Society, analysed a range of species across five malaria endemic countries to determine Wolbachia prevalence rates.

It, also, characterised new Wolbachia strains and determined any correlation between the presence of Plasmodium, Wolbachia and the competing bacterium Asaia. The research found Wolbachia strains in five species, increasing the number of Anopheles species known to be naturally infected.

Principle investigator and the Lead Author of the Study Dr Thomas Walker of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, said, ‘’This important discovery provides greater insight into the prevalence of resident Wolbachia strains in diverse malaria vectors.  Novel Wolbachia strains, particularly, high-density strains, are ideal candidate strains for trans-infection to create stable infections in other Anopheles mosquito species, which could be used for population replacement or suppression control strategies.

Further studies are needed to determine, if, these strains are impacting malaria transmission in field settings. Previous studies in other Sub-saharan African countries have shown, even, low density Wolbachia strains in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes have significant effects on the infectious sporozoite stages of malaria parasites.”

The promising results follow the latest findings from the Annual World Malaria Report, which reported that the number of cases of malaria in 10 of the countries worst affected by the disease has gone up over the last year, despite a huge global effort to tackle the mosquito-borne disease. 

Professor Scott O'Neill, the Director, World Mosquito Programme, said, “This work adds considerably to the growing appreciation that Wolbachia naturally infects anopheline mosquito species. However, the low frequency of these infections in the An. gambiae complex is an intriguing puzzle and suggests that these infections are not behaving like Wolbachia in most other insects. A fuller understanding of these unusual infections will allow us to determine how best they, might be, used in future disease control programs.”

The Paper: Novel Wolbachia strains in Anopheles malaria vectors from Sub-Saharan Africa: Jeffries CL, Lawrence GG, Golovko G et al: Wellcome Open Research:::ω.

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New Research Finds Potential Treatment for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia


















|| December 19: 2018: University of Glasgow News || ά. Scientists at the University of Glasgow have discovered a potential combination therapy for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia:CLL, the most common form of leukaemia in the Western world, diagnosed in more than 3,500 people in the UK each year. The research, carried out in collaboration with NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde:NHSGGC and published in Clinical Cancer Research, found that the combination of Ibrutinib, a targeted treatment, already, in clinical use, with a new inhibitor, called, AZD8055, helped promote CLL cell death in a pre-clinical study.

This study, which used CLL patient samples and a CLL mouse model, found that combination of these two inhibitors activated a protein, called, FOXO1, which can function as a ‘molecular brake,’ stopping the cells from multiplying and inducing CLL cell death. CLL is a blood cell cancer, affecting white blood cells. The disease more commonly affects people over the age of 60. The disease course can vary from patient to patient, with some patients experiencing a stable low-grade disease, that does not require treatment, while others develop resistance to chemotherapy treatments given and are considered high-risk patients.

The introduction of Ibrutinib into the clinic as a treatment of high-risk CLL patients has enhanced the survival of this difficult to treat sub-set of CLL patients. However, the CLL cells can adapt to the drugs, developing mutations and, therefore, becoming resistant to Ibrutinib, leaving few therapeutic options for patients. Novel combination of treatments offer the potential to reduce the ability of the CLL cell to adapt to the treatment, which attacks the cell in two places as opposed to one.

Dr Alison Michie, who led the study, said, "Reducing the ability of CLL cells to survive is key to interrupting disease progression. In our study, we established that by targeting and inhibiting the function of a protein, called, mTOR, which is, often, deregulated in cancer, we improved the killing of CLL cells.

Combining mTOR inhibition with a drug, called, Ibrutinib, which is currently being used in the clinic to treat high-risk CLL patients, enhances the activation of FOXO1, a protein, that can promote cell death, in a pre-clinical model. Our findings are important because they could demonstrate a potential new therapeutic approach for treating patients with high-risk CLL.”

The study was funded by the Medical Research Council:MRC and Bloodwise. 

The Paper: AKT:mTORC2 inhibition activates FOXO1 function in CLL cells reducing B cell receptor-mediated survival: Published in Clinical Cancer Research.:::ω. 

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New Mechanisms Which are Behind Neo-Natal Diabetes Discovered




|| December 17: 2018: University of Helsinki News: Päivi Lehtinen Writing || ά. Researchers at the University of Helsinki, have described mechanisms, linking chronic cellular stress to the poor development of the insulin-producing cells. Insulin is secreted from the beta cells, which are located in the pancreas and it is crucial for the maintenance of normal blood sugar levels. Deficiency of insulin leads to diabetes, characterised by elevated blood sugar. Diabetes most commonly presents in childhood as Type One Diabetes and in adults as Type Two Diabetes.

Sometimes Diabetes is diagnosed in very small babies, during the first six months of life. In these cases, mutations in the gene, encoding insulin are, often, found. These mutations are only found in one copy of the gene; that means that half of the produced insulin is normal, which should be enough to secure normal blood sugar. However, this is not the case: insulin secretion stops totally after a few months. It is believed that this is caused by a toxic effect of the mutant insulin inside the cell but the exact mechanisms are poorly understood.

Mutant insulin is known to cause a chronic stress reaction in the beta cell and it has been thought that this leads to the death of the cell. It is important to understand the detailed consequences of beta-cell stress, because this, may, help to develop drugs for the prevention of both rare and common forms of Diabetes.

“We, now, had the chance to test this with real patient-derived cells.” Says Professor Timo Otonkoski from the University of Helsinki. Researchers created a human disease model, using stem cells from people, carrying insulin gene mutations; then, they corrected cells using a gene editing technique, called, CRISPR. The mutant and corrected stem cells were, then, induced to turn into insulin-secreting beta cells and the researchers followed the function of the cells after transplanting them in mice.

“The main finding of the study was that these cells do not die from the chronic stress but their growth and development is disturbed. These effects are mediated through processes, that could, potentially, be targeted by drugs.” Dr Diego Balboa says.

“In this study, we describe mechanisms, linking chronic cellular stress to the poor development of the insulin-producing cells. A strongly reduced number of beta-cells will cause Diabetes immediately but, even, a milder defect will increase the risk of Diabetes later in life. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of these processes, may, help in devising ways to preserve the mass and function of beta cells.” Professor Otonkoski says.

More information: Professor Timo Otonkoski: University of Helsinki: Email: timo.otonkoski at

The Paper: Insulin mutations impair beta-cell development in a patient-derived iPSC model of neonatal diabetes: Viite: Balboa D, Saarimäki-Vire J, Borshagovski D, Survila M, Lindholm P, Galli E, Eurola S, Ustinov J, Grym H, Huopio H, Partanen J, Wartiovaara K, Otonkoski T: Insulin mutations impair beta-cell development in a patient-derived iPSC model of neonatal diabetes: Published in Elife: November 09: 2018:::ω.

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The Septin-Police at Work: Septin Proteins Act as Cellular Police to Identify Imprison and Kill Superbug Shigella



|| December 14: 2018: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine News || ά. A protein family, found naturally in our cells could help stop the spread of dangerous drug resistant infections by using 'Poirot' like powers to collect evidence of bacterial infection and imprison it, according to new research published in the journal Cell Host and Microbe. Using advanced technologies to image human cells and study infection at the level of a single bacterial cell, the research team, led by the School, has uncovered the strongest evidence yet that septins take Shigella prisoner. The research shows, for the first time, that these proteins can detect, where bacteria will split for division and prevent it from doing so by forming cage-like structures around the bacteria.

Anti-microbial resistance is one of the biggest threats to global health. As well as, the need to develop new drugs, such as, antibiotics, new ways to control bacterial infection are vitally important. Shigella is a human gut pathogen, that infects more than 150 million people globally and causes up to 500,000 deaths every year. Due to the increasing number of drug resistant strains, Shigella is one of the 'superbugs’ deemed a priority by the World Health Organisation. The researchers say that, although, septins are a powerful, natural mechanism to restrict Shigella, future work is required to determine how septin biology can be harnessed for therapeutic purposes. It is hoped that these new findings, may, lead to a novel way to boost the human immune system and treat a wide variety of bacterial infections.

Lead Author Professor Serge Mostowy from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, said, “We are actively working to engineer this discovery for human health application. If, we can use drugs to boost septin caging, we have a new way to stop infection.”

In 2010, researchers first observed that septin cages can entrap Shigella, opening up the tantalising prospect of a new way to stop the bacteria spreading in the body. However, how cells recognise Shigella for entrapment and the fate of entrapped bacteria, was mostly unknown.

Study Co-author Ms Sina Krokowski said, “For modern medicine, how cells can recognise bacteria is the subject of intense investigation. This information is crucial, if, septins are ever able to be used as a treatment for humans.”

The research team found that the septin cage seemed to recognise actively dividing bacteria, whether it’s anti-microbial resistant or not. Moreover, using high resolution microscopes with advanced cameras, the researchers found that, once entrapped in a septin ‘cage’, 93% of bacteria will never divide again because they are targeted to autophagy, a cellular process of ‘self-eating’, providing definitive proof that cages are anti-bacterial. 

Professor Mostowy said, “The rise of ‘superbugs’ is one of the greatest global health challenges we face. New drugs to tackle antimicrobial resistance are crucial but they are costly and all likely to be met with resistance. We, must, therefore, also, look at other, novel ways to control bacterial infection.

By applying cutting edge microscopy techniques, only, available in the last few years, to study the cellular immune response to Shigella, we now have clear evidence that septins can be a new ‘natural’ weapon in the fight against AMR. Remarkably, these proteins act as host cell ‘sensors’ to recognise actively dividing bacteria, the exact bacterial population, that causes disease, for entrapment. In addition to Shigella, this, may, also, apply to a wide variety of invasive bacterial pathogens, such as, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus.”

The authors acknowledge limitations of the study, including, the possibility that some bacteria have evolved to avoid septin cage entrapment and the need for in vivo study prior to application in humans.

The research was funded by the Wellcome Trust and Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine.

The Paper: Septins Recognize and Entrap Dividing Bacterial Cells for Delivery to Lysosomes: Sina Krokowski, Damian Lobato-Ma´rquez, Arnaud Chastanet, Pedro Matos Pereira, Dimitrios Angelis, Dieter Galea, Gerald Larrouy-Maumus, Ricardo Henriques, Elias T. Spiliotis, Rut Carballido-Lo´ pez and Serge Mostowy: Published in Cell Host and Microbe:::ω. 

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Year Gamma Arkive 2017-18

Year Beta Arkive 2016-17

Year Alpha Arkive 2015-16

|| April 06: 2018 || ά. The Humanion was first published on September 24, 2015 and has been run, since that day, on a complete voluntary basis without any 'formal' or 'constituted' manner or form and, it was run on as a Human Enterprise, which is an idea of Humanics, in which, ownership is replaced by belongingship and, thus, in a Humanical Society, no one owns anything but everyone belongs to the whole as the whole belongs to everyone lawfully and equally and, it neither believes in nor makes money but human utilities, needs, aspirations, creativity, imagination and dreams are served without money, where everyone works and creates for all others as all others create and work for all others, thus, bringing in meaning and purpose to life along with it come natural justice, equality and liberty, that establish a true civilisation within the Rule of Law. And in one word, this system of human affairs management is called, Humanics and a society that runs itself in humanics is called a humanical society. Today, we have begun the process of 'constituting' this Human Enterprise, which does not exist in the current system, but the next closest thing to it, that exists in the UK Law is Social Enterprise. Therefore, today, Friday, April 06, 2018, we are beginning Regine Humanics Foundation, that is the 'Agency', that will lead, run, manage and develop everything, that The Humanion has been trying to do.

Regine Humanics Foundation is established by the Thinker, Author, Poet, Novelist, Playwright, Editor of The Humanion, Festival Director of London Poetry Festival and a Humanicsxian: hu: maa: neek: tian: One, that believes in, lives and exists by Humanics, Mr Munayem Mayenin, of London, England, United Kingdom. Mr Mayenin says, ''Humanics is a vision; people, may, call it, utopia, we, call it our Humanicsovicsopia; Humanics. Humanics is our philosophy, our faith, our conviction, our resolution, our way of existing, thinking, being and doing: to seek and try to do so in the determination that all we must do and be is to exist to advance the human condition. People, readers and agencies and organisations, from all across England, Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales and the whole of the United Kingdom and Australasia, Africa, Asia, Europe, North and South America, from all walks and strata of life, have supported our endeavours, supported The Humanion and The Humanion Team, who volunteered their time to run things, since the beginning of The Humanion and long before that, when other things, that are now part of The Foundation, were developing. Nothing has changed in terms of the nature and value of what we have been seeking to do.''

''But the founding of The Foundation brings it all in a solid foundation so that we can keep on building this 'vision' so that it keeps on going regardless of who come to take the vision-mission of The Foundation forward. The Foundation runs along with time and along with the flowing humanity. This is the dream, this is the vision, this the hope in founding this Foundation. And, in this, we hope and invite all our readers, supporters, well wishers and all agencies and organisations to support our endeavours to build something, a Human Enterprise, which we are in the process of registering as a Social Enterprise, as a Community Interest Company, working for the common good of the one and common humanity. No one makes or takes profit out of The Foundation, which now runs The Humanion and everything else, that is part of it. The Foundation, once registered, will have an Asset Lock, which means that in any event, should The Foundation dissolve itself, all its existing assets shall go to a similar Social Enterprise. Therefore, we invite everyone to support The Foundation, support The Humanion in whatever way they can. And, there are endless number of ways people and organisations can support The Foundation and The Humanion.'' ::: ω.

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The Door of Learning and Seeking Must Always Remain as Open as the Universe and as Resolutely Active as the Ray of Light












Reading this page, we hope and imagine, that practitioners of Medicine and the countless numbers of professionals who work within the field of Medicine as well as the students of the discipline, would feel encouraged and inspired to join us and write about their subject discipline for and in The Humanion. Please, get involved and create and shape debates on the future of Medicine. We would particularly, be interested in issues impacting on profound questions that Medicine faces such as the death penalty and the stance of the profession of Medicine and euthanasia, human drug trials, drugs and poverty and practical and day to day issues that Medicine faces. Please, get in touch and do get involved. We are not looking for work for the 'professionals' but for the thinking mind, which means that writing should not be too technical and too much punctuated by too much professional jargons. We would very much be interested about writing from Medicine professionals working with national and international charity organisations.

Only in the transparent pool of knowledge, chiselled out by the sharp incision of wisdom, is seen the true face of what truth is: That what  beauty paints, that what music sings, that what love makes into a magic. And it is life: a momentary magnificence, a-bloom like a bubble's miniscule exposition, against the spread of this awe-inspiring composition of the the Universe. Only through the path of seeking, learning, asking and developing, only through the vehicles and vesicles of knowledge, only through listening to the endless springs flowing beneath, outside, around and beyond our reach, of wisdom, we find the infinite ocean of love which is boundless, eternal, and being infinite, it makes us, shapes us and frees us onto the miracle of infinite liberty: without border, limitation or end. There is nothing better, larger or deeper that humanity can ever be than to simply be and do love. The Humanion

Create and Pave: Intelligence and Learning

|| December 09: 2017 || ά. Learning is a Bio-Intuitional Cognition Process Set by Nature in All Living Organisms on a Scale of the Lowest Level and Degree of Sheer Biological Awareness to the Highest Level and Degree of Consciousness That is Capable of Forming Itself Both as Individual Person and as a Member of the Unity of Many Persons or Community or Society and That is Capable to Congnise, Combining Both Bio and Intuitional in an Alignment of All Components of the Faculty of Rationality by Which It Thinks Through and Comes to Cognition and That is Learning and This Learning is Deposited in a 'Bank', Called, Memory: From a Single Cell Living Organism with Just Biological Awareness on Biological Cognition to a Human Brain:Mind:Will:Soul with Bio-Intuitional Cognition Learning Can and Does Take Place. There is None and Can Not Be Any Intelligence or Learning Outside Living Organisms, Where We Find Things, Matters, Energies, Time, Space and Void Existing Under Absolute, Incorporated, Inherent and Ingrained Eternal Natural Laws Without Exceptions at All Times, That Not a Single Variable Existing in It Can Alter or Not Obey, Signifying There is No 'Will' There, Which Does and Can Only Arise Out of Intelligence Through Learning and All, That is Outside the Living-Life, Form Part of What We Call The Mechanoprincipium, Which Only the Highest Possible Bio-Intuitional Intelligence, i.e, Humanity is Capable of Perceiving.

Therefore, the Very Absurd Ideas, That the Misguided, Manipulative and Profiteering Market Mechanism is Seeking to Portray, Establish, Impose and Dictate to Humanity as Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning are Nothing But Means to Expand the Scope, Prowess and Reach of Dehumanisation and Must Be Rejected, Resisted, Fought and Defeated Outright. We Have, Almost, More Than Half of All Humanity and the Great Majority of Women, Forced and Sentenced to Live and Die in No Education, in Desperate Hunger, Desperate Poverty and Abject Poverty and Malnutrition and Without Medical Care, in Homelessness and Unemployment and Much More Besides and, Yet, These Forces are Wasting All Precious Human and Other Priceless Resources Into Such Absolute and Utter Audacity of Imposing Their Machinations on Humanity as If to Suggest That for an Injured Soul Dying in Absolute Agony of Bleeding, Hurts and Pains the Necessity is Not to Take Her:Him to the Nearest Accident and Emergency Unit of a Hospital But Get a Plastic Toy-Robot-Doctor to Sit Next to Him Speaking Utter Imbecility! This Can Not, Should Not and Must Not Be Let to Succeed. The Most Vital and Most Scarce Human Resources Must Not Be Let to Be Squandered in This Absurd and Utterly Misguided Pursuit of Dehumanisation. Our High-Most Priority is to Ensure That the Entire Humankind, in All Nations on Earth, is Afforded the Right to Get an Education and Get Universal Human Rights and Not a Single Soul Die of Hunger or for the Lack of Medicare.

This is What is Called Intelligence and This Why It is Called Learning: Because are Humans and We Ask and Question and We Empathise and We Sympathise and We Love and We Hope and We Imagine and We Learn and We Dream and We Want to Ensure Our Brothers and Sisters and All Our Children are as Valued, as Safe, as Protected, as Respected and as Nurtured as Everyone Else. This is Called Humanity and This Arises Out of This Intelligence, That is an Inalienable and Inseparable Part of the Biological Mechanism and Architecture of Life and Which Can Not and Does Not Exist Outside This Living-Life and That Mother Nature Has Endowed Each One of Us With, When We Arrive at Our Existence. Therefore, O Humanity Rise to Reject, Fight and Defeat This Attack of Ruthless Dehumanisation by These Concocted, Brewed and Miss-constructed Ideas Being Sought to Be Implanted in Our Heads and Minds. The Humanion uses Machine Processed Programming:MPP for Machine or Artificial Intelligence and Programmed Algorithmic Machination:PAM for Machine Learning, refusing the very concepts that machines can have intelligence and that they are, therefore, capable to learn. Likewise, The Humanion does not use the terms, self-driven or self-driving or autonomous vehicles for machines are not and can not be deemed to be having 'self', that absolutely applies to humans and autonomy applies to humans as individuals and as groups, societies, peoples, nations etc and can not be applied to machines. Therefore, Auto-driven is the term we use for Self-driven or Self-driving or autonomous vehicles etc. This relates to profound, vital and fundamental issues and we must be careful as to how we use terminology, that, albeit, inadvertently, dehumanises humanity.

At the General Medical Council GMC Conference 2016










Image: GMC




Life's Laurel Is You In One-Line-Poetry A Heaven-Bound Propagated Ray Of Light Off The Eye Of The Book Of Life: Love For You Are Only Once



Life: You Are The Law The Flow The Glow: In Joys In Hurts You Are The Vine-Songs On The Light-Trellis


























|| All copyrights @ The Humanion: London: England: United Kingdom || Contact: The Humanion: editor at || Regine Humanics Foundation Ltd: reginehumanics at || Editor: Munayem Mayenin || First Published: September 24: 2015 ||
|| Regine Humanics Foundation Ltd: A Human Enterprise: Registered as a Not For Profit Social Enterprise in England and Wales: Company No: 11346648 ||