The Arkive
|| Year Delta: London: Monday: September 24: 2018: We Keep On Walking On The Path of Humanics ||
First Published: September 24: 2015
VII London Poetry Festival 2018: Sunday-Monday: October 14-15: 19:30-22:00
















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The Entire Spectrum of Colours and All the Forms, Manners and Expressions of Light are Made Invisible in This White: Or, Rather, Mix All the Colours and You Have This White: Or, Arrange All the Colours and Find an Infinite Rainbow: Or Take the Colours and Light Away and There Resides the Darkness But As Such That in Its Invisible Sphere There Still Remains Another Infinite Rainbow at Various States, That We Can Not See With Our Eyes: Take That All Away and You Have the Utter, Absolute and Primeval Duantum Darkness Within Which Our Matter Universe is Constructed and Does Function: Unless, We Remember This Every Nano-Second of Our Existence We Loose Our Sense and Joy of Eternal Wonder, Awe and Astonishment of This Magnificent Universe, Which is Outside, True, But Which is Nano-Seismically Constructed in the Human Physiology and Psychology: The Study of Medicine Will Always Remain and Fall Short Until It Sees and Learns That It is Dealing with the Universe, When It Goes About Learning and Healing This Human Physiology and Psychology: Alphansum Sovereign Necessarius: Munayem Mayenin


Simple Factors That Can Avoid Harmful Side Effects in Type Two Diabetes




|| August 12: 2018: University of Exeter News || ά. Clinicians can match people with Type Two Diabetes to the right drug for them to improve control of blood sugar and help avoid damaging side-effects, simply by factoring in simple characteristics such as sex and BMI into prescribing decisions, new research has shown. The study, by the University of Exeter Medical School, could dramatically improve benefits of drugs and reduce the risk of potentially harmful side-effects, such as, weight gain and hypoglycaemia, at no additional cost to the NHS.

Metformin is the first line of drug treatment in Type Two Diabetes but many patients will, eventually, need additional drugs on top of Metformin to lower their blood sugar levels. Currently, clinicians have to make prescribing decisions on these additional drug options based on limited available guidance. Recent research involving the Exeter team has showed there is great regional variation across the UK in the prescribing of these additional drugs. The new study, funded by the Medical Research Council and published in the journal Diabetes Care, provides a starting point for a more evidence-based approach to the prescribing of drugs after Metformin.

Based on a patients’ gender and BMI, the authors found important differences in the likely success of the commonly-prescribed drugs Sulfonylureas and Thiazolidinediones in lowering blood sugar levels and in the risk of common side effects.  For example, obese females were far more likely to have good blood glucose control on Thiazolidinediones than Sulfonylureas, whilst non-obese males had the opposite result; they were far more likely to have good blood glucose control on Sulfonylureas than Thiazolidinediones.

The researchers used anonymous data from more than 29,000 patients, who had either taken part in trials or were treated in UK GP practices. By combining these datasets, the researchers were able to show their findings were robust and, potentially, applicable to many of the 03.5 million-plus people currently diagnosed with Type Two Diabetes in the UK.

Mr John Dennis, of the University of Exeter Medical School, was the Lead Author on the study. He said, “Our findings are important as they provide the first evidence that personalised or ‘precision’ medicine approaches in diabetes can be based on simple patient characteristics available to any doctor, rather than expensive genetics or other technology.

This simple personalised approach could be implemented immediately within the NHS without any additional cost. The study is, also, a powerful demonstration of how the sharing of patient data can meaningfully benefit patients, in this case, helping to make sure individual patients get the best drug for them.”

Professor Andrew Hattersley, a Consultant in Diabetes at the Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital and Research Professor at the University of Exeter Medical School, said, “At the moment, clinicians are in the difficult position of making decisions that impact on health in Type Two Diabetes based on very little evidence. Now, we can create clear guidelines to enable much more informed conversations about what these treatments will mean for people, in order to get better health outcomes and avoid harmful side effects.”

Dr Richard Evans, the Programme Manager for Stratified Medicine and Molecular Pathology at the MRC, said, “This research used shared clinical trial data from a large number of patients to show that simple patient characteristics can help inform the choice of therapy in diabetes; the results are likely to show real impact, and significant benefits to patients when they are implemented in patient care.

Diabetes afflicts one in 17 people in the UK, research into precision or stratified approaches to this condition is crucial to getting patients the most appropriate treatment in the most efficient way, underpinned by solid evidence.”

The Paper: Sex and BMI alter the benefits and risks of sulfonylureas and thiazolidinediones in type 2 diabetes: A framework for evaluating stratification using routine clinical and individual trial data: Published in Diabetes Care:::ω.

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New Research Finds a New Potential Target for the Treatment of Diabetes



|| July 29: 2018: Karolinska Institutet News || ά. Researchers at Karolinska Institutet have discovered that one of the building blocks in the calcium channels in the pancreatic beta cells play an important role in regulating our blood glucose values. Treatments aimed at this building block, may be, a new way to combat, primarily, Type Two Diabetes. The research has been published in the scientific journal Cell Reports. Beta cells in the pancreas produce the hormone insulin, which regulates the blood glucose level in our bodies.

In Diabetes, the beta cells have lost part or all of their function. Calcium ions, Ca2+, act as an important signal for the release of insulin. When blood glucose increases, this causes the levels of Ca2+ in the beta cells to increase, triggering the release of insulin. Under normal conditions the Ca2+ signal displays a specific regular pattern when the cells are stimulated by glucose. When, on the other hand, the beta cells are not able to release normal amounts of insulin, as in Diabetes, this pattern changes.

The level of Ca2+ increases in the beta cell when a specific calcium channel, made up of several different building blocks, opens in the beta cell’s wall. Professor Per-Olof Berggren’s research group at Karolinska Institutet has previously shown that one of the building blocks in the channel, the so-called β3 sub-unit, plays an important regulatory role.

“In our new study, we are able to show that beta cells, from Diabetic mice, have an increased amount of the β3 sub-unit and that this causes an altered Ca2+ pattern, a reduced release of insulin and, thereby, impaired blood glucose regulation.” says Professor Per-Olof Berggren at the Rolf Luft Research Centre for Diabetes and Endocrinology at the Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery at Karolinska Institutet, who led the study.

When the researchers reduced the amount of the β3 sub-unit in the beta cells in the Diabetic mice, the Ca2+ signal normalised and, thereby, the release of insulin, resulting in better regulation of the blood glucose levels. They, also, saw that the mice, that totally lacked the β3 sub-unit demonstrated a better beta cell function and blood glucose regulation when they were given a diabetogenic diet. When the researchers tried transplanting beta cells without the β3 sub-unit into mice with Diabetes, the blood glucose regulation of the mice improved.

Experiments with human beta cells showed that the release of insulin deteriorates with increased amounts of the β3 sub-unit. “Our findings indicate that just this building block in the calcium channel can be a new target for treating Type Two Diabetes. However, even in Type One Diabetes manipulation of the beta three sub-unit, may be, beneficial in order to establish better functioning insulin secreting beta cells for transplantation.” says Professor Per-Olof Berggren.

The research was financed by the National Research Foundation of Korea:NRF, the Korea-Sweden Research Co-operation Programme, the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research, the Swedish Diabetes Association, Karolinska Institutet’s Foundations and Funds, the Swedish Research Council, the Novo Nordisk Foundation, the Erling-Persson Family Foundation, the Strategic Research Programme in Diabetes at Karolinska Institutet, the European Research Council:ERC, the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, Skandia insurance company Ltd, the Diabetes and Wellness Foundation, the Berth von Kantzow Foundation, and the Stichting af Jochnick Foundation.

Professor Per-Olof Berggren is the Managing Director of the bioetech company Biocrine AB and Co-authors Martin Köhler and Shao-Nian Yang are consultants at the company. No other corporate interests have been reported.

The Paper: Blocking Ca2+-channel β3 subunit reverses diabetes: Kayoung Lee, Jaeyoon Kim, Martin Köhler, Jia Yu, Yue Shi, Shao-Nian Yang, Sung Ho Ryu, and Per-Olof Berggren: Cell Reports: Online: July 24: 2018:::ω.

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Commonly Prescribed Medications Found to Be Linked to the Rise in Harmful Side Effects in Dementia Patients




|| July 25: 2018: University of Exeter News || ά Medications, which are commonly prescribed to people with dementia, have been linked to an increase in harmful side-effects, research involving the University of Exeter has concluded. The research, presented at the Alzheimer’s Association International Conference examined the impact of opioid-based painkillers or a class of sleep medication, known as, Z drugs, Zolpidem, zopiclone and Zaleplon.

These are prescribed to an estimated 200,000 with dementia living in care homes across the UK in total. In the opioid painkiller research, a team of researchers from the University of Exeter, King’s College London and the University of Bergen highlight a tripling in harmful side effects related to the use Buprenorphine in people with dementia, compared to those on a placebo. Researchers, also, identified a mechanism, that, may be, causing the problem.

In a randomised controlled trial of 162 Norwegian care home residents, the researchers found a significant rise in side effect, such as, personality changes, confusion and sedation, which can seriously impact people’s lives in dementia. The trial team, led by the University of Bergen, studied 162 people from 47 Norwegian care homes, who had advanced dementia and significant depression.

In those, who were assigned Buprenorphine as part of their treatment pathway, harmful side-effects more than tripled. The researchers, also, found that those taking Buprenorphine were significantly less active during the day.

In the Z-drugs research, the researchers compared data for 2,952 people with dementia, who were newly prescribed the medication with data for 1,651 who were not, in order to evaluate the benefits and harms of the medicines. They found that people, who take Z-drugs are more likely to fracture a bone than those, who do not. Bone fractures are related in turn to an increased risk of death in people with dementia.

Researchers are now calling for studies to examine alternative non-drug approaches to treating pain and insomnia and appropriate dosing of painkillers, such as, Buprenorphine for people with dementia. Professor Clive Ballard, of Age-Related Diseases at the University of Exeter Medical School, said, “Research into anti-psychotics highlighted that they increased harmful side effects and death rates in people with dementia.

This compelling evidence base helped persuade everyone involved in the field to take action, from policy makers to clinicians, reducing prescribing by 50 per cent. We now urgently need a similar concerted approach to opioid-based painkillers and Z-drugs, to protect frail elderly people with dementia from fractures and increased risk of death.”

Importantly, research led by Professor Ballard’s team and presented at the conference gives insight into the mechanism of why people with dementia are more susceptible to opioid-based painkillers, suggesting they over-produce the body’s natural opioids.

The study treating arthritis in Alzheimer’s mice found increased sensitivity to the opioid-based painkiller morphine in mice with Alzheimer’s disease compared to those without. Those with Alzheimer’s disease responded to a much lower dose to ease pain and experienced more adverse effects when the dose was increased to a normal level.

Looking into this further the study found that the Alzheimer’s mice produced more of the body’s natural endogenous opioids, such as, endorphins. The study, presented as a poster at AAIC, also, concludes that dosing of opioid-based painkillers urgently needs to be reviewed in people with dementia to enable safe and effective treatment of pain and prevent unnecessary harm and deaths. :::ω.

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Blood in Stools May Indicate a Range of Chronic Diseases




|| July 22: 2018: University of Dundee News|| ά. Faecal bleeding, may be, a marker of a range of chronic disease, including, several cancers, previously thought to be unrelated, according to new research from the University of Dundee. The presence of blood in stools has long been associated with colorectal cancer. The new study, led by Professor Bob Steele of Dundee’s School of Medicine, has shown that patients, who recorded a positive faecal occult blood test:FOBT were much more likely to die not only from colorectal cancer but, also, a range of other diseases.

Professor Steele and his team looked at data for 134,000 patients, who have participated in FOBT screening in Scotland since 2,000 and linked their test results with mortality data from the National Records of Scotland over the same period. Not only were those, who had a positive result more likely to die of colorectal cancer, their risk of dying from all other causes was, also, higher. Furthermore, faecal bleeding was significantly associated with increased risk of dying from circulatory disease, respiratory disease, digestive diseases, neuro-psychological disease, blood and endocrine disease and non-colorectal cancer.

While further research into the links between faecal bleeding and these diseases is required, Professor Steele hopes that it could, one day, be used to reduce the risk of premature mortality and to explore the underlying reasons for different patterns of mortality across the world.

“This is the first observational study to demonstrate a link between faecal bleeding and increased risk of death from a range of diseases other than colorectal cancer.” he said. “Over the past 18 years, we have operated a bowel screening programme, that looks for traces of blood in faeces and this has been very successful in detecting the disease in its earliest stages and increasing survival rates.

Anyone with a positive FOBT result, then, receives a colonoscopy to look for tumours or polyps, that could explain the bleeding but there are quite a number of patients for whom blood in their stool turns out to be a false positive and who do not have colorectal cancer.

We were always curious as to why this should be so we went back to the early cohorts to examine outcomes for those with positive compared to negative FOBT results. What we found is that, if, you had a positive test you were more likely to die from colorectal cancer, which is what we expected but we, also, found that all-cause mortality was higher.

We then linked this data with specific causes of death and found that the risk of dying from a series of other diseases, such as, heart attacks, circulation disorders, respiratory disease and many other cancers was, also, higher.

The reason for this is not clear as yet but we think that it, might be, related to levels of inflammation throughout the body as this is a marker of general ill-health and chronic inflammation is a driving factor behind whole series of whole host of other diseases. In any event, if, someone is found to have unexplained blood in their faeces, it, may, mean that they are at risk of developing chronic disease and, may, benefit from attention to their lifestyle.”

Faecal bleeding is associated with the male sex, age and deprivation. After adjusting for these factors, the risk of dying from colorectal cancer remained higher among those with a positive FOBT result, as did all-cause mortality and many specific diseases. Professor Steele was, also, able to link the data with a unique database of prescribing information, that exists in Tayside to prove that these results were not caused by medicines, that can cause bleeding.

“At present, if, somebody with blood in their stool, who goes on to have a colonoscopy, that doesn’t show any tumour or polyps in the bowel we don’t investigate further. It is only recently that we’ve become interested in other causes of death, that are unlikely to directly cause blood in stool but are somehow linked.’’ said the Professor.

‘’The next stage is to carry out prospective studies to see, if, there is a link between lifestyle diseases and faecal bleeding and whether it is reversible. Perhaps in future we should be saying in these instances that we need to look at risk factors for other diseases, such as, smoking or obesity, to see, if, interventions can be implemented at this stage to help prevent premature death.”

Professor Steele holds a Chair in Surgery at the University is one of the UK’s leading authorities on cancer screening. He is Director of the Scottish Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme, having acted as Clinical Lead for the UK demonstration pilot, that was used to inform the decision to introduce national screening programmes throughout the UK.

He is a Fellow of The Royal Society of Edinburgh and was elected a Fellow of Academy of Medical Sciences earlier this year. :::ω.

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Researchers Use Cryo-Electron Microscopy for the First Time to See the Molecular Machinery of the Herpes Virus As to How It Infects Humans: Paving the Way for Potential Drug Development Opportunities




|| July 19: 2018: University of Glasgow News || ά. For the first time, researchers have been able to use a Nobel Prize winning technology, cryo-electron microscopy, to show  the detailed structure of the common Herpes Virus. Researchers at the University of Glasgow used the advanced technique to gain high resolution images of the biological mechanisms this virus uses to infect people. The findings were published in PLOS Biology on July 05.

The researchers now hope that these findings could lead to the development of new drugs to treat the illness this virus causes. The herpes family include the viruses, that cause both cold-sores and chicken pox. Members of this family of viruses can, also, cause cancers and severe illnesses in the unborn child. However, at only 1:10,000th of a millimetre in diameter, the capsid or shell, the Herpes Virus uses to store its DNA and infect its host, has until now been difficult for scientists to anaylse.

Herpes Viruses cause infection by introducing their DNA into our cells. To do this, they package their DNA inside a protective coat, called, a capsid. The capsid is spherical in shape and highly symmetrical.

The researchers used cryo-electron microscopy to show the structure of a motor-like assembly, called, a portal. Herpes Viruses pump their DNA into pre-assembled capsids through the portal. When a Herpes Virus infects our cells, the DNA is ejected from the capsid by the same portal machinery.

Dr David Bhella, the Lead Author of the study from the MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, said, “Cryo-electron microscopy, combined with new computational image processing methods allowed us to reveal the detailed structure of the unique machinery by which the virus packs DNA into the capsid. The DNA is packed very tightly, reaching a pressure similar to that inside a bottle of Champagne. 

We hope that this study will, eventually, lead to the development of new medicines to treat acute herpes virus infections, through the design of drugs, that will block the action of the portal motor.”

As well as showing the shape of the portal machinery, this study, also, established how the virus packs its DNA inside the capsid. Individual strands of DNA were seen to be wound up in a spool, rather like a ball of wool. The development of cryo-EM as a technique for resolving detailed atomic structures was developed at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology.

Dr Jonathan Pearce, Head of Infections and Immunity at the MRC, said, “Dr Bhella and his team have now used this technique to elucidate the structure of the Herpes Virus, revealing a ‘molecular machine’, that is involved in virus replication. The findings provide scientists with a better understanding of the virus and its anatomy and, in turn, an insight into potential new therapeutic targets.

These elegant experiments exemplify the potential of the Scottish Centre for Macromolecular Imaging due to be launched later this year at the CVR, led by Dr Bhella, which will support vital research into diseases posing the greatest threat to human health.”

The study, ‘Structure of the herpes-simplex virus portal-vertex’ is published in PLOS Biology. The work was funded by the Medical Research Council:MRC.:::ω.

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All That Can Be Done and Always There’s So Much More That Can Be Done: All About Congenial Hyper-Insulinism



|| July 19: 2018: University of Exeter News || ά. A charitable organisation is providing vital funding for people with a rare condition across the world to have genetic screening at the University of Exeter. The US-based non-profit organisation Congenital Hyperinsulinism International will fund genetic testing for babies around the world from families, who could not, otherwise, afford the testing. Getting the right diagnosis and treatment can help avoid brain damage and other severe complications. Dear Reader, wherever you are in this world, whether in Exeter or East London in South Africa or New Hampshire in the USA or in Alexandria in Egypt or in Boston, no, not in the USA but in good old United Kingdom, do tell people about this work, about this condition so that parents get to hear where and how to seek help but, more importantly, that they should gather forces.

The world is a tiny little place. Believe us not: count eight hundred billion plus stars in the little Milky Way Galaxy and among which our little nano-dot sun is literally a ‘dwarfed’ out thing and now find your earth there! It does not look that big, does it? And, yet, in this tiny little earth there are so many so called geo-political pretend-giants stomping and fretting and yelling the world how big and mighty they are with their puddle-views and by their puddlesque blindness, seeking to take the world down towards insanity. But, leaving all that aside, we can make this tiny little place even more tiny by our infinite reach! And by getting together, gathering forces and joining hands  we only enhance our abilities and reach, that allow us access to a reservoir of human strength and spirit from the fellow travellers.

A few parents from far flung corners of the earth came together to bring this agency into existence and they are now able to offer this to so many others, who, otherwise, can not have it. Tell the world that the world is not just going and being run down by insanity but that there are far better ‘insane’ people, ‘insane’ humanity out there all-where, determined to carry on with the good work. They open not their mouths with diarrhoea but they believe, act and work with goodness in their hearts and souls and in their vision a determined resolve to keep on being and doing good and tirelessly they keep on going: seeking to do: to change, to make better.

Congenital Hyperinsulinism is a condition in which babies are born secreting too much insulin. Made in the pancreas, insulin is the hormone, that regulates blood sugar levels. Having too much means babies can be born very large and suffer from problems associated with low blood sugar. If, the condition is not treated appropriately, the brain can be starved of vital fuels, which can cause learning difficulties, blindness or, even, death.

The world-leading Hyper-Insulinism research team at the University of Exeter Medical School, who work closely with the NHS genetics laboratory at the Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital, has received samples from 86 countries and provided genetic testing for more than 3,000 families affected by this condition, who could not afford to pay for the test.

Dr Sarah Flanagan, of the University of Exeter Medical School, who leads the research programme, said, “This genetic testing is absolutely vital for families. For many children with this condition the only way to prevent brain damage is to undertake pancreatic surgery.

The genetic result can help determine whether all or just part of the organ should be removed, which can mean better outcomes for the children. I’m delighted that Congenital Hyperinsulinism International is providing funding for this crucial work for people worldwide, who could no,  otherwise, afford this test.” 

Congenital Hyperinsulinism International was set up by eight parents of children with Congenital Hyper-Insulinism from Australia, the US, Canada and Ireland, and one nurse caring for a child with Hyper-Insulinism. It held its first conference in 2006 and is now a leading global organisation in raising awareness, providing information and bringing together families from across the world, who are affected by the condition. 

The non-profit organisation has so far pledged nearly £17,700 to cover six months’ of testing. It intends to contribute a further £35,000 to cover 18 months in total.

Ms Julie Raskin, Executive Director of Congenital Hyperinsulinism International, co-founded the charitable organisation. Her son, Ben, was born with Ccongenital Hyper-Insulinism and is now 22 years old.

Ms Raskin said, “We are on a mission to end preventable brain damage and death from Congenital Hyper-Insulinism and to ensure those living with it get the best possible care. Partnering with the University of Exeter Medical School to ensure that cost and geography are not barriers to genetic testing is an enormous step forward for the global Congenital Hyper-Insulinism community.” :::ω.

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New Research Finds Potential for Developing the First Lassa Virus Vaccine




|| July 15: 2018: University of Southampton News || ά. A study, led by the University of Southampton, has discovered new hope, which could support the creation of the first vaccine for the deadly Lassa Virus. This highly infectious agent is amongst a panel of viruses, which includes Ebola, that cause severe haemorrhagic fever in humans. As there is currently no effective vaccine or treatment available to combat this virus, the findings, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, will support efforts to generate a vaccine to tackle the subsequent outspread of the disease.

The Lassa Virus is commonly found in West Africa and is transmitted to humans, mainly, through handling rats, food or household items contaminated by rats’ urine and faeces. The virus can spread between people through direct contact with the body fluids of a person infected with Lassa Fever, as well as, contaminated bedding and clothing. According to figures released by the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control:NCDC, the current Lassa Virus outbreak in Nigeria has resulted in a total of 444 confirmed cases, including, 111 recorded deaths to date. This is the largest outbreak of the Lassa Virus ever reported in Nigeria.

Any successful vaccine to combat the Lassa Virus would likely include the viral spike, that functions on the virion surface and is responsible for helping the virus enter a target cell. It is hoped that by including mimics of the viral spike the body’s immune system will make antibodies against the spike, that are capable of neutralising the virus.

Making a vaccine against Lassa Virus is difficult and one characteristic of the virus, which enables it to avoid detection by the immune system, is a dense coat of sugars, that are attached onto the surface of the spike, otherwise known as, glycans.

Professor Max Crispin, Principal Investigator of the study from the University of Southampton, said, “We hope that by understanding the glycan shield of Lassa Virus we will be able to help in the efforts to generate an effective vaccine.

Given the impact of Nigeria’s largest-ever Lassa Fever outbreak this year, it is critical that we begin to identify the idiosyncrasies, which could help to create a vaccine to combat this highly infectious agent and ensure it is contained.” 

As part of the study, titled, ‘Structure of the Lassa virus glycan shield provides a model for immunological resistance’, the research team has created a detailed map of the glycan shield, which has shed light on why the virus is so immunologically resistant.

The findings provide a potential blueprint for understanding how glycans render the glycoprotein spikes of Lassa Virus and how the infection could be combated. Professor Thomas Bowden, Co-author of the study from the University of Oxford, said, "The development of a vaccine for a virus, such as, this is a long and complex process.

These findings have important implications for researchers developing vaccines against Lassa Virus, providing a benchmark to assess future vaccine candidates.”:::ω.

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Post-Ebola Syndrome: New Study Finds Ebola Survivors Suffer From Severe Neurological Problems



|| July 14: 2018: University of Liverpool News || ά. Researchers have shed new light on the psychiatric and neurological problems, that Ebola survivors can suffer from and call for more specialist support for the most severely affected patients. A new report, published in Emerging Infectious Diseases, details a broad range of disorders among Ebola survivors in Sierra Leone, including, stroke and debilitating migraine-type headaches. Some survivors are left unable to care for themselves.

The observational study was led by researchers at the University of Liverpool and King’s Sierra Leone Partnership of King’s College London, based in Connaught Hospital, Freetown and in collaboration with the Ebola Survivors Clinic at Military Hospital 34, Freetown, Sierra Leone, as part of an ongoing effort to better understand Post-Ebola Syndrome:PES and improve on-going patient care following the 2014-2016 outbreak in West Africa.

To better understand the neurological and psychiatric effects of PES, adult patients with pre-determined, significant symptoms, such as, confusion, depression and psychosis, were identified from the patient notes of over 300 Ebola survivors. 34 selected patients were invited to attend a joint neuro-psychiatric clinic in 2016, where they underwent a full neurological examination, psychiatric screening and specialist investigations, including, brain scan imaging.

The most frequent neurological diagnosis was migranous headache, followed by stroke, peripheral sensory neuropathy and focal peripheral nerve lesions. Most survivors had co-existent mental health needs, with the most frequent psychiatric diagnoses being major depressive disorder and generalised anxiety disorder.

Dr Janet Scott, who lead the Post-Ebola Syndrome Project at the University of Liverpool, said, “We knew that a disease as severe as Ebola would leave survivors with major problems, however, it took me aback to see young and previously active people, who had survived but were now unable to move half their bodies or talk or pick up their children.

These cases are on the severe end of the spectrum but thanks to support from the Wellcome Trust, we’ve been able to further investigate these cases and learn more about Ebola Virus Disease in the process. Our findings support the need for larger, case-controlled studies. Post-Ebola Syndrome is not going away and those with the condition deserve better treatment.” 

Dr Patrick Howlett, from King’s College London, carried out this study. He said, “We found a broad set of neurological and psychiatric symptoms, from minor to extremely severe and disabling, are present in Ebola survivors well over a year after discharge from hospital. In our selected group intermittent headaches were the most frequent neurological feature, with a variety of associated symptoms. Connaught Hospital continues to provide specialist neurological care for these patients, however, there is an urgent need to support training for specialist medical professionals, who can meet the needs of this survivor population.

This was a broad collaboration co-ordinated from the University of Liverpool. The ‘Survivors Clinic’ was based at Military Hospital 34, in Freetown and got specialist input in Neurology and Psychiatry was provided by a Connaught Hospital, Freetown, with support from King’s Sierra Leone Partnership. We called on the particular skills of Radiology and Ophthalmology Departments at the Royal Liverpool Hospital to interpret the CT Brain Scans and retinal images. It highlights the need for a team effort in considering these complex clinical cases.”

Psychiatrist Dr Stephen Sevalie, 34 Military Hospital, said, “Psychiatric features of insomnia, depression and anxiety are common and our findings suggest that there is, also, a need for better understanding of the psychiatric and psychological consequences of Ebola Virus Disease. Although, our Ebola Survivors Clinic includes an onsite councillor, there are many more, who won’t have access to the specialist care they need so we will continue to research and provide hands on support to ensure this happens.”

The study and investigators were supported by the Wellcome Trust  Enhancing Research Activity in Epidemic Situations:ERAES programme and grants from the National Institute for Health Research:NIHR Health Protection Research Unit in Emerging and Zoonotic Infections at the University of Liverpool. Additional support was received from Advancing Partners and Communities, a programme funded by the United States Agency for International Development through JSI Research and Training Institute.

Professor Mike Turner, Wellcome’s Head of Infection and Immunobiology, said, “It has become clear that many people, who survived Ebola infection in West Africa in 2014 have had long term effects on their health. This new study shows the damaging neurological and psychological effects of the virus, with survivors experiencing chronic migraines and strokes, as well as, depression and anxiety. These findings demonstrate the devastating long-term impact Ebola has had on survivors’ quality of life and their ability to participate in family life and with their community.” 

The Paper: Case Series of Severe Neurologic Sequelae of Ebola Virus Disease during Epidemic, Sierra Leone:::ω.

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New Research Finds That Stopping Antibiotics Before the Resistance Reaches the Tipping Point Is the Way to Beat Anti-Microbial Resistance



|| July 12: 2018: University of Exeter News || ά. Treatments using antibiotics should stop as soon as possible to prevent patients passing the ‘tipping point’ of becoming resistant to their effects, new research has shown. A team of researchers, led by Professor Ivana Gudelj from the University of Exeter and featuring Professor Robert Beardmore and Professor Emily Cook, has uncovered new evidence that suggests reducing the length of the antibiotic course reduces the risk of resistance.

For the study, the researchers examined how microbial communities, groups of micro-organisms, that share a common living space in the body, reacted to different antibiotic cycling patterns, which sees the medication restricted or increased, under laboratory conditions. They found that changes both in the duration and dose of antibiotics used and in sugar levels, which mimics the variable sugar levels in human patients, could push these microbial communities beyond a ‘tipping point’, creating an irreversible shift to becoming drug resistant.

The researchers insist that this new study demonstrates that resistant species can increase within the body, even, after an antibiotic is withdrawn, if, a tipping point was unwittingly passed during treatment. The study is published in the journal Nature Ecology and Evolution on Monday, July 09.

Professor Beardmore, a mathematical biosciences expert from the University of Exeter, said, “It’s a sensible idea that, when you take an antibiotic away, resistance goes away, too, but we wondered what kinds of antibiotic treatments don’t behave like that. After all, in some clinical studies, resistance didn’t disappear when the antibiotic did.”

Antibiotic resistance occurs when microbes develop the ability to defeat the drugs designed to kill them and so they multiply unhindered. Antibiotics are the most effective treatment for a wide-range of microbial infections, including, strep throat and pneumonia.

For decades, patients have been instructed to complete courses of antibiotics because the perceived wisdom had been that taking too few tablets would allow bacteria to mutate and become resistant. However, more recently it has been suggested that the longer microbes are exposed to antibiotics, the more likely it is that resistance will develop. 

Little research has been conducted to show how the length of a course of antibiotics impacts resistance, which, despite differences in patients, for example, in their blood sugar levels, are recommended to be the same for all.

In the new study, the researchers examined how microbial communities containing Candida Albicans and Candida Glabrata reacted to different doses of an antimicrobial when fed with sugar. Both species are commonly found together in healthy people but are, also, opportunistic pathogens, which can cause infection.

The study showed that as the antimicrobial was introduced, the communities were reduced, while the removal of the treatment allowed them to flourish again. The researchers showed that, if, sugar levels dropped in the community, it could reach a ‘tipping point’ whereby resistance would persist, even, after the antimicrobial had stopped being used.

The new research opens up the possibilities for further studies to better understand when the best time would be to stop antibiotic treatment, to prevent resistance occurring.

Co-author Professor Ivana Gudelj said, ‘’Our body is a mother ship for microbial communities but we’ve still expected to understand drug resistance by studying microbial species one at a time, in the lab.

We show this can be misleading because microbes have intricate relationships, that the drugs make, even, more complicated and, yet, our theories of antibiotic resistance have ignored this, until now. So that’s the first surprise: even, sugars can affect antibiotic resistance.”

The Paper: Drug-mediated metabolic tipping between antibiotic resistant states in a mixed-species community: Published in Nature Ecology and Evolution online:  Monday, July 09: 2018:::ω.

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New Research Finds New Means to Inhibit Capillary Leakage in Sepsis



|| July 01: 2018: University of Helsinki News || ά. Leakage from the blood capillaries is a key mechanism, leading to septic shock and multi-organ failure, which affect millions of patients annually worldwide. However, there is no effective way to inhibit the vessel leakiness. A new study by scientists at the University of Helsinki and Wihuri Research Institute demonstrates that vascular leakage can be inhibited by targeting vascular integrins. Increased capillary permeability and, subsequent leakage from the capillaries, is associated with numerous difficult to cure diseases, including, Qcute Respiratory Distress Syndrome:ARDS, severe Dengue Fever and Malaria and Sepsis.

Currently, there is no effective therapy to inhibit capillary leakage and to maintain vessel stability in these diseases. The latest research published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA indicates that a monoclonal antibody targeted against β1-integrin inhibits vascular leakage in a mouse model of Sepsis. Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface receptors, that mediate interactions between cells and the surrounding extracellular matrix. β1-integrin is a key molecule in endothelial cells, which form the inner layer of the blood vessel wall. Previously, β1-integrin has been known to regulate blood vessel formation and vessel stability.


Scientists have now identified a new function for β1-integrin in vascular leakage associated with severe inflammation and Sepsis. Principal Investigator, Dr Pipsa Saharinen, at the University of Helsinki and Wihuri Research Institute, said, ‘’We made a remarkable discovery: a molecule, that was previously known to mediate vessel stability, behaved in an opposite manner in inflammation, by inducing vessel destabilisation and leakage.

We found that inflammatory agents induced cell contractility, that was mediated via β1-integrin, leading to gap formation between endothelial cells and increased permeability.’

The scientists used a mouse model of gram-negative Sepsis, also, termed Endotoxemia, which was induced in mice by a bacterial component, LPS. The scientists found that the antibody against β1-integrin bound to the vascular endothelium, improved the junctions between endothelial cells and decreased vascular leakage in sepsis. In addition, the antibody protected the mice from sepsis-induced heart failure.   

The antibody against β1-integrin was effective as a prophylactic treatment but, also, as an intervention therapy, i.e, when the antibody was administered after the onset of the disease. 

‘’This is important since it mimics more the situation in real life. Sepsis, may, develop unexpectedly and proceed fast. When the patients arrive at the hospital, the disease, may have, already, progressed. It would be important to have the means to inhibit vessel leakiness and the development of a more severe disease. In our study, the antibody against β1-integrin was effective in inhibiting vascular leak in mice, even, when it was administered after the onset of the leakage.’’ Dr. Saharinen said.

In Sepsis the body’s own inflammatory reaction becomes overwhelming. Due to the increased level of numerous inflammatory agents, it has been so far difficult to develop a targeted therapy for sepsis.

‘’Using endothelial cells in culture, we found that β1-integrin is a key mediator of not only one but several inflammatory agents, that are upregulated in Sepsis. Furthermore, we found that a vascular growth factor Angiopoietin-2, which is known to play a role in the pathogenesis of Sepsis, regulated β1-integrin signalling in endothelial cells.

Although, there is still a lot of work to do to, these exciting results could, ultimately, help us develop an effective treatment to block capillary leak in Sepsis.’’ Dr Saharinen said.

For further information contact: Associate Professor, Dr Pipsa Saharinen: Tele: +358-50 448 6361: email: pipsa.saharinen at

The research was carried out at Wihuri Research Institute, University of Helsinki, University of Turku and University of Oulu.

The study was funded by the Academy of Finland, Cancer Society of Finland, European Research Council, Helsinki Institute of Life Science:HILIFE, Sigrid Juselius Foundation and Jenny and Antti Wihuri Foundation.

Caption: Image One: Leakage of the vascular tracer: red: from dermal blood vessels: green: in systemic inflammation: Image Two: Dr Elina Kiss: Left and M.Sc  Laura Hakanpää: Right in Associate Professor Pipsa Saharien’ Lab at HILIFE: Image One Credit: Laura Hakanpää:Saharinen Lab: Image Two Credit: Joel Noutere: Saharinen Lab :::ω.

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Year Gamma Arkive 2017-18

Year Beta Arkive 2016-17

Year Alpha Arkive 2015-16

|| April 06: 2018 || ά. The Humanion was first published on September 24, 2015 and has been run, since that day, on a complete voluntary basis without any 'formal' or 'constituted' manner or form and, it was run on as a Human Enterprise, which is an idea of Humanics, in which, ownership is replaced by belongingship and, thus, in a Humanical Society, no one owns anything but everyone belongs to the whole as the whole belongs to everyone lawfully and equally and, it neither believes in nor makes money but human utilities, needs, aspirations, creativity, imagination and dreams are served without money, where everyone works and creates for all others as all others create and work for all others, thus, bringing in meaning and purpose to life along with it come natural justice, equality and liberty, that establish a true civilisation within the Rule of Law. And in one word, this system of human affairs management is called, Humanics and a society that runs itself in humanics is called a humanical society. Today, we have begun the process of 'constituting' this Human Enterprise, which does not exist in the current system, but the next closest thing to it, that exists in the UK Law is Social Enterprise. Therefore, today, Friday, April 06, 2018, we are beginning Regine Humanics Foundation, that is the 'Agency', that will lead, run, manage and develop everything, that The Humanion has been trying to do.

Regine Humanics Foundation is established by the Thinker, Author, Poet, Novelist, Playwright, Editor of The Humanion, Festival Director of London Poetry Festival and a Humanicsxian: hu: maa: neek: tian: One, that believes in, lives and exists by Humanics, Mr Munayem Mayenin, of London, England, United Kingdom. Mr Mayenin says, ''Humanics is a vision; people, may, call it, utopia, we, call it our Humanicsovicsopia; Humanics. Humanics is our philosophy, our faith, our conviction, our resolution, our way of existing, thinking, being and doing: to seek and try to do so in the determination that all we must do and be is to exist to advance the human condition. People, readers and agencies and organisations, from all across England, Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales and the whole of the United Kingdom and Australasia, Africa, Asia, Europe, North and South America, from all walks and strata of life, have supported our endeavours, supported The Humanion and The Humanion Team, who volunteered their time to run things, since the beginning of The Humanion and long before that, when other things, that are now part of The Foundation, were developing. Nothing has changed in terms of the nature and value of what we have been seeking to do.''

''But the founding of The Foundation brings it all in a solid foundation so that we can keep on building this 'vision' so that it keeps on going regardless of who come to take the vision-mission of The Foundation forward. The Foundation runs along with time and along with the flowing humanity. This is the dream, this is the vision, this the hope in founding this Foundation. And, in this, we hope and invite all our readers, supporters, well wishers and all agencies and organisations to support our endeavours to build something, a Human Enterprise, which we are in the process of registering as a Social Enterprise, as a Community Interest Company, working for the common good of the one and common humanity. No one makes or takes profit out of The Foundation, which now runs The Humanion and everything else, that is part of it. The Foundation, once registered, will have an Asset Lock, which means that in any event, should The Foundation dissolve itself, all its existing assets shall go to a similar Social Enterprise. Therefore, we invite everyone to support The Foundation, support The Humanion in whatever way they can. And, there are endless number of ways people and organisations can support The Foundation and The Humanion.'' ::: ω.

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The Door of Learning and Seeking Must Always Remain as Open as the Universe and as Resolutely Active as the Ray of Light












Reading this page, we hope and imagine, that practitioners of Medicine and the countless numbers of professionals who work within the field of Medicine as well as the students of the discipline, would feel encouraged and inspired to join us and write about their subject discipline for and in The Humanion. Please, get involved and create and shape debates on the future of Medicine. We would particularly, be interested in issues impacting on profound questions that Medicine faces such as the death penalty and the stance of the profession of Medicine and euthanasia, human drug trials, drugs and poverty and practical and day to day issues that Medicine faces. Please, get in touch and do get involved. We are not looking for work for the 'professionals' but for the thinking mind, which means that writing should not be too technical and too much punctuated by too much professional jargons. We would very much be interested about writing from Medicine professionals working with national and international charity organisations.

Only in the transparent pool of knowledge, chiselled out by the sharp incision of wisdom, is seen the true face of what truth is: That what  beauty paints, that what music sings, that what love makes into a magic. And it is life: a momentary magnificence, a-bloom like a bubble's miniscule exposition, against the spread of this awe-inspiring composition of the the Universe. Only through the path of seeking, learning, asking and developing, only through the vehicles and vesicles of knowledge, only through listening to the endless springs flowing beneath, outside, around and beyond our reach, of wisdom, we find the infinite ocean of love which is boundless, eternal, and being infinite, it makes us, shapes us and frees us onto the miracle of infinite liberty: without border, limitation or end. There is nothing better, larger or deeper that humanity can ever be than to simply be and do love. The Humanion

Create and Pave: Intelligence and Learning

|| December 09: 2017 || ά. Learning is a Bio-Intuitional Cognition Process Set by Nature in All Living Organisms on a Scale of the Lowest Level and Degree of Sheer Biological Awareness to the Highest Level and Degree of Consciousness That is Capable of Forming Itself Both as Individual Person and as a Member of the Unity of Many Persons or Community or Society and That is Capable to Congnise, Combining Both Bio and Intuitional in an Alignment of All Components of the Faculty of Rationality by Which It Thinks Through and Comes to Cognition and That is Learning and This Learning is Deposited in a 'Bank', Called, Memory: From a Single Cell Living Organism with Just Biological Awareness on Biological Cognition to a Human Brain:Mind:Will:Soul with Bio-Intuitional Cognition Learning Can and Does Take Place. There is None and Can Not Be Any Intelligence or Learning Outside Living Organisms, Where We Find Things, Matters, Energies, Time, Space and Void Existing Under Absolute, Incorporated, Inherent and Ingrained Eternal Natural Laws Without Exceptions at All Times, That Not a Single Variable Existing in It Can Alter or Not Obey, Signifying There is No 'Will' There, Which Does and Can Only Arise Out of Intelligence Through Learning and All, That is Outside the Living-Life, Form Part of What We Call The Mechanoprincipium, Which Only the Highest Possible Bio-Intuitional Intelligence, i.e, Humanity is Capable of Perceiving.

Therefore, the Very Absurd Ideas, That the Misguided, Manipulative and Profiteering Market Mechanism is Seeking to Portray, Establish, Impose and Dictate to Humanity as Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning are Nothing But Means to Expand the Scope, Prowess and Reach of Dehumanisation and Must Be Rejected, Resisted, Fought and Defeated Outright. We Have, Almost, More Than Half of All Humanity and the Great Majority of Women, Forced and Sentenced to Live and Die in No Education, in Desperate Hunger, Desperate Poverty and Abject Poverty and Malnutrition and Without Medical Care, in Homelessness and Unemployment and Much More Besides and, Yet, These Forces are Wasting All Precious Human and Other Priceless Resources Into Such Absolute and Utter Audacity of Imposing Their Machinations on Humanity as If to Suggest That for an Injured Soul Dying in Absolute Agony of Bleeding, Hurts and Pains the Necessity is Not to Take Her:Him to the Nearest Accident and Emergency Unit of a Hospital But Get a Plastic Toy-Robot-Doctor to Sit Next to Him Speaking Utter Imbecility! This Can Not, Should Not and Must Not Be Let to Succeed. The Most Vital and Most Scarce Human Resources Must Not Be Let to Be Squandered in This Absurd and Utterly Misguided Pursuit of Dehumanisation. Our High-Most Priority is to Ensure That the Entire Humankind, in All Nations on Earth, is Afforded the Right to Get an Education and Get Universal Human Rights and Not a Single Soul Die of Hunger or for the Lack of Medicare.

This is What is Called Intelligence and This Why It is Called Learning: Because are Humans and We Ask and Question and We Empathise and We Sympathise and We Love and We Hope and We Imagine and We Learn and We Dream and We Want to Ensure Our Brothers and Sisters and All Our Children are as Valued, as Safe, as Protected, as Respected and as Nurtured as Everyone Else. This is Called Humanity and This Arises Out of This Intelligence, That is an Inalienable and Inseparable Part of the Biological Mechanism and Architecture of Life and Which Can Not and Does Not Exist Outside This Living-Life and That Mother Nature Has Endowed Each One of Us With, When We Arrive at Our Existence. Therefore, O Humanity Rise to Reject, Fight and Defeat This Attack of Ruthless Dehumanisation by These Concocted, Brewed and Miss-constructed Ideas Being Sought to Be Implanted in Our Heads and Minds. The Humanion uses Machine Processed Programming:MPP for Machine or Artificial Intelligence and Programmed Algorithmic Machination:PAM for Machine Learning, refusing the very concepts that machines can have intelligence and that they are, therefore, capable to learn. Likewise, The Humanion does not use the terms, self-driven or self-driving or autonomous vehicles for machines are not and can not be deemed to be having 'self', that absolutely applies to humans and autonomy applies to humans as individuals and as groups, societies, peoples, nations etc and can not be applied to machines. Therefore, Auto-driven is the term we use for Self-driven or Self-driving or autonomous vehicles etc. This relates to profound, vital and fundamental issues and we must be careful as to how we use terminology, that, albeit, inadvertently, dehumanises humanity.

At the General Medical Council GMC Conference 2016










Image: GMC




Life's Laurel Is You In One-Line-Poetry A Heaven-Bound Propagated Ray Of Light Off The Eye Of The Book Of Life: Love For You Are Only Once



Life: You Are The Law The Flow The Glow: In Joys In Hurts You Are The Vine-Songs On The Light-Trellis


























|| All copyrights @ The Humanion: London: England: United Kingdom || Contact: The Humanion: editor at || Regine Humanics Foundation Ltd: reginehumanics at || Editor: Munayem Mayenin || First Published: September 24: 2015 ||
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