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First Published: September 24: 2015
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The Arctic

The Arctic Arkive Year Alpha and Year Beta




















How Global Warming Is Changing the Ecology of the Arctic Ocean




|| January 31: 2019: University of Essex News || ά. The warming of the Arctic Ocean, due to climate change means sea ice cover is becoming, increasingly, seasonal, with larger areas of open water and marginal ice zones during the spring and summer months. In the coming decades, it is predicted that ice cover will completely disappear every year during the warmer months. The knock-on effect of this environmental change means organic matter, which was previously contained within the ice is now being released into the surface water of the Arctic Ocean as the ice melts.

New research by the University of Essex, with partners in Canada and Germany, gives a greater insight into how this could change the microbial balance in this remote area of the planet and the impact on the food chain. Climate change has resulted in the continuing loss of thicker multi-year ice and, instead, thinner first-year ice, which freezes and melts each year, becoming the dominant type of ice in the Arctic Ocean. Essex Marine Biologist Professor Graham Underwood teamed up with Dr Christine Michel, a Canadian expert in sea ice ecology from the Fisheries and Oceans Canada Freshwater Institute in Winnipeg, to study the impact of sea ice melt on microbial processes in the Arctic Ocean.

Through experiments carried out in the High Canadian Arctic, they demonstrated that different organic carbon compounds, released from the sea ice modify the abundance, activity and composition of surface water microbial communities. Published in the Nature Climate Change journal, this significant research project shows the impact of this on the microbial communities in the Arctic and the impact on the food chain and water column carbon cycling in areas where seasonal ice is replacing permanent ice cover.

The research involved collecting surface water and first-year ice cores in an area about 02km offshore in Resolute Passage in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, an area, typically, covered with ice from late November to the beginning of July.

The project is the latest study in ongoing research by Professor Underwood into microbial ecology and carbon turnover in sea ice. This research is the most exciting development as it lifts the lid on the impact of the melting ice on the Arctic water column’s microbial communities.

“From above, sea ice looks pretty inhospitable to life but, within and underneath the sea ice, there are whole cities of microbes, made up of hundreds of different species, photosynthesising and producing a wide range of organic compounds. When the ice melts, there is this strong seasonal pulse of organic matter flowing into the surface water.”said Professor Underwood.

“This creates a frenzy of microbial activity, which has the knock-on effect of changing what the bacteria feeds on, which, in turn, feeds seals, fish and other species in the Arctic. We know the whole environment of the Arctic is changing but what we have found is a greater understanding of the effect on the biological make-up of the changing Arctic region. For example, we, now, know how some bacteria prefer different types of matter, which will change the microbial community food chain in ways we didn’t know before.”

Dr Michel said, “Our study reveals that different organic carbon fractions released from Arctic sea ice modify the abundance, activity, and composition of surface water microbial communities. These results point to wide-ranging consequences of the transition from multi-year to first-year ice as the Arctic Ocean continues to warm.”

Further research is now needed to establish how large areas previously covered by multi-year ice will respond to changes in the sea ice biochemistry and seasonal dynamics.

“We need to define the new biogeochemical cycles in the ‘new’ Arctic which melts and freezes every year.” said Professor Underwood.:::ω.

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The Arctic Ocean May Have Been Covered by an Ice Shelf Nearly Double the Size of Greenland’s Ice Sheet

|| April 17: 2018: University of Sheffield News  || ά. An ice shelf over a kilometre thick, once, formed over the Arctic Ocean, a new study by researchers from the University of Sheffield has shown. The study is the first of its kind and strongly supports the theory that a floating ice shelf, might have, formed in the Arctic Ocean during some of the Earth’s Ice Ages. The research, led by Dr Ed Gasson, from the University of Sheffield’s Ice and Climate research group published today April 17, in Nature Communications, used a numerical ice sheet:shelf computer model to show that an ice shelf in the Arctic Basin could, only, have become a kilometre thick, if, it covered the entire basin.

This model, also, provided an estimate of the ice shelf’s size, up to 01.7 times the size of Greenland’s current ice sheet. The study, also, found that the Arctic ice shelf, might have, increased the volume of ice sheets on land surrounding the Arctic Ocean. Its presence, may, also, explain discrepancies in sea level reconstructions. Dr Ed Gasson, said, “The study is important because it opens up further research into what role this previously missing piece played in Earth’s glacial periods. Although, these periods of Earth’s history have been extensively studied already there are many things that are not fully explained. What impact an Arctic ice shelf had on the climate system is a big unanswered question.”

The results are consistent with a recent discovery of ice scours, a narrow ditch on a seabed caused by the movement of pack ice, on the Lomonosov Ridge, which runs across the middle of the Arctic Basin. This indicated that a floating ice shelf might have formed in the Arctic Ocean during some of the Earth’s Ice Ages.

The hypothesis of an Arctic ice shelf was first put forward in the 1970s, but there was limited evidence supporting it. When ice reaches the seafloor it causes erosion. Although, ice scour marks have been found on the Arctic seafloor previously, it was argued whether the keels of icebergs or an ice shelf caused the scours. However, a recent research cruise to the Arctic discovered new traces that had the tell-tale signs of a former ice shelf.

The ice shelf most likely formed during the penultimate glacial period around 140,000 years ago. There is no evidence yet that an ice shelf formed during the Last Glacial Maximum around 20,000 years ago, when much of North America and northern Europe was covered by ice sheets. The study suggests that this could be due to differences in the Earth’s orbit or because the Eurasian ice sheet did not expand as fully towards the Arctic Basin.

One challenge with detecting floating ice shelves if that they can leave no traces unless they ground on the seafloor, leaving open the possibility, that a thinner ice shelf formed during the Last Glacial Maximum.

About the University of Sheffield: With almost 29,000 of the brightest students from over 140 countries, learning alongside over 1,200 of the best academics from across the globe, the University of Sheffield is one of the world’s leading universities. A member of the UK’s prestigious Russell Group of leading research-led institutions, Sheffield offers world-class teaching and research excellence across a wide range of disciplines. Unified by the power of discovery and understanding, staff and students at the university are committed to finding new ways to transform the world we live in.

Sheffield is the only university to feature in The Sunday Times 100 Best Not-For-Profit Organisations to Work For 2018 and for the last eight years has been ranked in the top five UK universities for Student Satisfaction by Times Higher Education. ​​Sheffield has six Nobel Prize winners among former staff and students and its alumni go on to hold positions of great responsibility and influence all over the world, making significant contributions in their chosen fields.
::: ω.

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For Stories Published in The Arctic in || April  ||  May  ||  June || The Arctic Q-Beta 2018


|| April 06: 2018 || ά. The Humanion was first published on September 24, 2015 and has been run, since that day, on a complete voluntary basis without any 'formal' or 'constituted' manner or form and, it was run on as a Human Enterprise, which is an idea of Humanics, in which, ownership is replaced by belongingship and, thus, in a Humanical Society, no one owns anything but everyone belongs to the whole as the whole belongs to everyone lawfully and equally and, it neither believes in nor makes money but human utilities, needs, aspirations, creativity, imagination and dreams are served without money, where everyone works and creates for all others as all others create and work for all others, thus, bringing in meaning and purpose to life along with it come natural justice, equality and liberty, that establish a true civilisation within the Rule of Law. And in one word, this system of human affairs management is called, Humanics and a society that runs itself in humanics is called a humanical society. Today, we have begun the process of 'constituting' this Human Enterprise, which does not exist in the current system, but the next closest thing to it, that exists in the UK Law is Social Enterprise. Therefore, today, Friday, April 06, 2018, we are beginning Regine Humanics Foundation, that is the 'Agency', that will lead, run, manage and develop everything, that The Humanion has been trying to do.

Regine Humanics Foundation is established by the Thinker, Author, Poet, Novelist, Playwright, Editor of The Humanion, Festival Director of London Poetry Festival and a Humanicsxian: hu: maa: neek: tian: One, that believes in, lives and exists by Humanics, Mr Munayem Mayenin, of London, England, United Kingdom. Mr Mayenin says, ''Humanics is a vision; people, may, call it, utopia, we, call it our Humanicsovicsopia; Humanics. Humanics is our philosophy, our faith, our conviction, our resolution, our way of existing, thinking, being and doing: to seek and try to do so in the determination that all we must do and be is to exist to advance the human condition. People, readers and agencies and organisations, from all across England, Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales and the whole of the United Kingdom and Australasia, Africa, Asia, Europe, North and South America, from all walks and strata of life, have supported our endeavours, supported The Humanion and The Humanion Team, who volunteered their time to run things, since the beginning of The Humanion and long before that, when other things, that are now part of The Foundation, were developing. Nothing has changed in terms of the nature and value of what we have been seeking to do.''

''But the founding of The Foundation brings it all in a solid foundation so that we can keep on building this 'vision' so that it keeps on going regardless of who come to take the vision-mission of The Foundation forward. The Foundation runs along with time and along with the flowing humanity. This is the dream, this is the vision, this the hope in founding this Foundation. And, in this, we hope and invite all our readers, supporters, well wishers and all agencies and organisations to support our endeavours to build something, a Human Enterprise, which we are in the process of registering as a Social Enterprise, as a Community Interest Company, working for the common good of the one and common humanity. No one makes or takes profit out of The Foundation, which now runs The Humanion and everything else, that is part of it. The Foundation, once registered, will have an Asset Lock, which means that in any event, should The Foundation dissolve itself, all its existing assets shall go to a similar Social Enterprise. Therefore, we invite everyone to support The Foundation, support The Humanion in whatever way they can. And, there are endless number of ways people and organisations can support The Foundation and The Humanion.'' ::: ω.

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|| All copyrights @ The Humanion: London: England: United Kingdom || Contact: The Humanion: editor at || Regine Humanics Foundation Ltd: reginehumanics at || Editor-In-Chief: Munayem Mayenin || First Published: September 24: 2015 ||
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