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+01+:-01:=0: Therefore, Zero Contains Both the Possibilities of All the Positive Numbers and Negative Numbers, Including, the Hypothetical + and - Infinity: Mathematically, Therefore, Everything Arises Out of This Zero, That Contains Infinity Itself: In Humanics, We Call This Zero Imagination: For Humanity Is and Does Arise Out of This Infinity of Imagination: Imagine and Bring About Your Imagination, Ingenuity, Creativity and Empathy Onto the Real and See What Infinity Humanity Is and What Infinity It Can Be and Do: And Parallel Imagination Ingenuity, Creativity and Empathy with Connectedness, Bond, Compassion and Love in the Existence and State of Humanity and See and Show the Universe That She Has Got a Parallel and Resonating Equal-Awe  Residing in Humanity: Regine Humanics Foundation Ltd




Mathematical Medicine Or Medicinal Mathematics: How the Power of Mathematics Can Help Assess Lung Function



|| May 12: 2018: University of Southampton News || ά. Researchers at the University of Southampton have developed a new computational way of analysing X-ray images of lungs, which could herald a breakthrough in the diagnosis and assessment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease:COPD and other lung diseases. A multi-disciplinary team of mathematicians, clinicians, and image specialists from three of the University faculties has devised a method for numerically describing the complicated three-dimensional structure of the lung using topology, a branch of mathematics designed, specifically, for the study of complex shapes.

Utilising a combination of computed tomography CT:scans, high-performance computing and algorithms, the researchers computed numerical characteristics, in three dimensions, of the entire bronchial trees of 64 patients categorised in four different groups: healthy non-smokers, healthy smokers, patients with moderate COPD and patients with mild COPD. COPD is a complex lung condition, that involves, to various degrees, the airways or the bronchi and the lung tissue or alveoli; this results in a progressive loss of lung function.

It affects more than 200 million people worldwide, middle-aged or older adults, mainly, those, who have had significant exposure to cigarette smoke. It is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. The research team analysed such features as the structure and size of the bronchial tree, the length and direction of its branches and the comparative changes in shape during deep inhalation and full exhalation. They found that, typically, a larger, more complex tree indicates better lung function and a smaller distorted tree, poorer lung function.

The researchers found that their new method was able to accurately distinguish between the different groups of patients, the characteristics of their lung function and the different stages of their condition. It was able to identify characteristics not detectable to the naked eye.

Furthermore, they hope that repeating this method across a much larger database of images and combining it with other data could lead to the real-world development of a valuable clinical tool for the early diagnosis of conditions like COPD and asthma, providing a more accurate way of identifying the severity of an individual patient’s condition.

Lead Researcher and Professor in Mathematics Professor Jacek Brodzki, of the University of Southampton, says, “Until now, the severity of lung conditions has been assessed by using a spirometer, a device, which measures the force and amount of air a patient can exhale and two-dimensional CT images, assessed by expert specialists, who have extensive experience of examining and interpreting CT imagery and using relatively simple measures of lung density and bronchial wall thickness.

Our study shows that this new method, employing topological data analysis, can complement and expand on established techniques to give a valuable, accurate range of information about the lung function of individuals. Further research is needed but this could eventually aid decisions about the treatment of patients with serious, or potentially serious, lung conditions.”

Professor of Medicine at the University of Southampton and NIHR Senior Investigator, Professor Ratko Djukanović, said, ''This method is a major advance in our ability to study the structural abnormalities of COPD, a complex disease, that affects so many people and, sadly, results in significant morbidity and mortality.

The image analysis method developed by our University’s mathematicians is the first to apply the field of topology in lung diseases and one of only a handful of studies of this kind in medicine in general. Southampton is a great place for collaborative research of this kind, so we look forward to working further with our mathematician colleagues to develop this method for use in routine clinical care.”

Professor Joy Conway, of Heath Sciences at Southampton, said, “This study is a unique collaboration between clinicians and mathematicians, which gives us new insight into the interpretation of this kind of CT scan data. With further research, it holds great promise for improving patient treatment in the future.”

The paper Lung Topology Characteristics in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is published in the journal Nature Scientific Reports.

The study was carried out by University of Southampton academics Dr Francisco Belchi, Dr Mariam Pirashvili and Professor Jacek Brodzki, Lead of Mathematics. Also, Dr Michael Bennett and Professor Joy Conway of Health Sciences and Professor Ratko Djukanović of Medicine. It was supported by the EPSRC ::: ω.

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For Stories Published in Mathematics in Year Gamma are Arkived in Year Gamma Arkive


Ada Lovelace The Origin of Computing

She was the daughter of Poet Lord Byron but she found her poetry in Mathematics and Sciences

Maria Agnesi

A True Mathematician

The need to measure in Mathematics expresses the universal human mindset and necessity of seeking to understand; both quantitatively and qualitatively. In order to measure one needs both numbers and yardstick; Mathematics works with vary many classes of numbers, their values, their places, their positions, their spaces, their relations and their interactions, shapes and sizes, qualities and quantities, concepts and objects, relations, derivations, functions, ratios, accelerations, decelerations, magnitude, multitude and so on and so forth and can offer systems and mechanism to measure so to offer understanding for us so that we are able to navigate in the reality, that is much more bewilderingly complex than it otherwise, might, appear to us. The best of understanding, that Mathematics offers is this: no matter how 'endless a multiplex of complexities' the Universe appears to be it is very simple in one way: it follows laws at all times unfailingly and, Mathematics seeks those laws out and they are the tools, that offer us the ability to do our day 'craft' to 'craft' a life and living so that we can build houses and ships, rockets and international space stations, build and fly aeroplanes, build and navigate ships and make machines, that help us do what otherwise we can not.





















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