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First Published: September 24: 2015
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Setting the Records Straight: A Report of the Involvement of Finnish SS Men in the Killing of Jews Civilians and Prisoners of War in the Period 1941-43 Has Been Published



|| February 10: 2019 || ά. An Archive Report, prepared by the National Archives of Finland of the involvement of Finnish SS men in the killing of Jews, civilians and prisoners of war in the period 1941–1943, has been submitted to the Office of Finland’s Prime Minister on Friday, February 08. The Report complements the information available on the systematic killing of Jews and other civilians as part of Germany’s attack against the Soviet Union in June 1941. In total, 1,408 Finnish volunteers served in the SS Panzer Division Wiking in the period 1941-1943.

The Report was an independent archive investigation, commissioned by the Prime Minister's Office and conducted by the National Archives of Finland. The Project was launched as Mr Efraim Zuroff, the Director of the Simon Wiesenthal Centre, approached the President of the Republic of Finland, Mr Sauli Niinistö in January 2018 and asked Finland to prepare a report of the involvement of the Finns, serving in SS Panzer Division Wiking in the period 1941-1943 in the killing of Jews. Professor Lars Westerlund was the Project’s Principal Investigator and Mr Ville-Pekka Kääriäinen, MA, served as a Research Assistant.

Significant complementary materials were obtained by the investigation from foreign archives in Russia, Ukraine, Germany, the Netherlands and the Nordic countries. The Project had access to the journals of a total of 76 Finnish volunteers in the SS Panzer Division Wiking. The Investigation, also, covered a considerably high volume of archives, maintained by the authorities and private persons, as well as, correspondence, photographs, newspaper and magazine reportage and articles, memoirs and available research literature. The Investigation had access to materials not available for previous studies.

“At the beginning of the attack, Finns were unaware of the Germans’ goal of eradicating the Jews. It is very likely that they participated in the killing of Jews, other civilians and prisoners of war as part of the German SS troops. Primarily, Finns had a negative view on these actions.” Says Mr Jussi Nuorteva, the Director-General of the National Archives of Finland.

“Finns were, above all, interested in fighting against the Soviet Union. This was due to experiences of the Winter War and the perceived threat, caused by the Soviet Union. The starting point for Finns’ involvement was different compared to most other countries joining SS foreign volunteers. Finland’s aim was to provide the country’s troops with military training. It had been agreed that the troops would return to serve as part of Finland’s military after this temporary training. Norwegian, Danish, Dutch and Belgian volunteers came from countries occupied by Germany and knowingly enlisted in the occupier's armed forces.’’

It is important to investigate the questions, that emerge and conduct complementary research on difficult and significant historical events. This Report contributes to increasing information on the events, that occurred during this historical period, including, those, that involved Finns. We share the responsibility for ensuring that such atrocities will never be repeated.” says Mr Lehtomäki.

The Report was published in English. It is available for downloading on the website of the National Archives of Finland. A summary of the Report is, also, available in Finnish and Swedish.

A printed version of the Report is available for purchase at the website of the Finnish Literature Society.

The Finnish SS-volunteers and atrocities 1941-1943

Inquiries: Director-General Jussi Nuorteva, National Archives of Finland, tel. +358 29 533 7001 Research Director Päivi Happonen, National Archives of Finland, tel. +358 29 533 7018 and Permanent State Under-Secretary Timo Lankinen, Prime Minister's Office, tel. +358 29 5160 300:::ω.

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Life's Laurel Is You In One-Line-Poetry A Heaven-Bound Propagated Ray Of Light Off The Eye Of The Book Of Life: Love For You Are Only Once



Life: You Are The Law The Flow The Glow: In Joys In Hurts You Are The Vine-Songs On The Light-Trellis



Firefly How Did You Look Half a Millennium Past and How Do You Look Now and How Will You Be in the Future: Look in the Clue for I Have Always Been a Firefly Regardless of How I Looked: University of St Andrews Travels Back in Time


|| December 20: 2017|| ά. Historic buildings at the heart of St Andrews have been digitally reconstructed to show how they looked nearly 500 years ago before the Reformation changed the face of the town forever. St Salvator’s Quad and Chapel, at the heart of the University of St Andrews, can now be seen in a virtual recreation, which shows how these historic buildings appeared before the religious changes of the Reformation. The reconstruction, created by Historians and Computer Scientists at the University, drew from images and manuscripts in the University’s Special Collections department.

This is the first phase of a wider project to digitally recreate the entire burgh of St Andrews as it appeared in 1559, just before the citizens of the town officially adopted Protestantism and set about transforming the community’s Catholic religious foundations. The St Andrews 1559 project is led by the University of St Andrews’ Professor Michael Brown, of the School of History, and Dr Alan Miller of the School of Computer Science. The digital model of St Salvator’s was created by Ms Sarah Kennedy of the School of Computer Science, with historical advice from Dr Bess Rhodes of the Schools of History and Computer Science and with help from students.

The St Salvator’s site was chosen as the first release from the St Andrews 1559 project because of its significance in the early phases of the Scottish Reformation. In February 1528 a 24-year-old academic, Patrick Hamilton, was burnt outside the gates of St Salvator’s College for advocating support for the German Reformer Martin Luther’s criticisms of the Catholic Church. Hamilton was the first person to be executed in Scotland for voicing Protestant ideas. This year marks five centuries since the event regarded as the start of the Protestant Reformation, when Martin Luther posted his 95 theses attacking the practices and doctrines of the late Medieval Catholic church in Wittenberg, a University town in Eastern Germany.

Dr Bess Rhodes said, ''We selected St Salvator's as the place to begin our reconstruction as a major landmark in the modern university and the town. It was of course, also, the scene of one of the most horrific events of the Scottish Reformation, the burning of Patrick Hamilton for his Lutheran beliefs. Particularly, chillingly, Hamilton’s death was something the university was directly involved in, playing a role in the prosecution and conviction of this very young man. Yet at the same time St Salvator’s has been the scene of fantastic academic achievement and many happy incidents in the University’s history.”

St Salvator’s College was founded in 1450 by Bishop James Kennedy as both an educational and a religious institution, providing a rigorous academic training for young men, who would primarily go on to serve in Scotland’s late medieval Catholic Church. During the Middle Ages St Andrews was the religious capital of Catholic Scotland. However, in the sixteenth century many Scots turned against Catholicism, inspired by new ‘Reformed’ interpretations of Christianity coming out of continental Europe.

In 1559 the St Andrews burgh officials, inspired by the Protestant preacher John Knox, officially rejected Catholicism and set about transforming local religious buildings, smashing altars and statues, burning church furnishings and books, and ending the religious function of many sites within the city.

The St Salvator’s buildings were altered by the Reformation and by further rebuilding work in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Although, today only small sections of the medieval College buildings survive the glories of the medieval College can now be explored virtually.

Whatever Your Field of Work and Wherever in the World You are, Please, Make a Choice to Do All You Can to Seek and Demand the End of Death Penalty For It is Your Business What is Done in Your Name. The Law That Makes Humans Take Part in Taking Human Lives and That Permits and Kills Human Lives is No Law. It is the Rule of the Jungle Where Law Does Not Exist. The Humanion

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