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Ecology Arkive

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Ecology is Not What is Out There, Irrelevant, Far Away, Remote, Outside and Beyond Us But Our Home: If, We Let It Become Devastated Ruins We Let Ourselves Live and Suffer in This Devastation, as Well as, Ruining and Devastating the Entire Web of Life. We Can Not Live Well, If, We Do Not Seek to Ensure Everything Lives Well for These Dolphins Can Not Live Well, If, the Oceans are Poisoned. As an Individual Human Soul, a Human Can Not Exist Well, If, the Entire Society is Poisonous or the Earth is Poisoned with Polluted Air or Water. Therefore, Selfishness is Anti-Existence, Anti-Humanity, Anti-Nature, Anti-Life, Anti-Science and Anti-Reason. Commonness, Connections, Oneness and Unison in Goal, Work and Creation is What Humanity is About. If, We Need Support for This View Just Bring in Mind the Human Physiology and See How It All Works in Oneness and Unison So to Ensure Existence is Not Only Sustainable But, Also, Being at Homeostasis, It is Ensured to Continue to Flow.....


The World Meteorological Organisation Confirms 2019 As the Second Hottest Rear on Record: On the Current Path of Carbon Dioxide Emissions We Are Heading Towards a Temperature Increase of 03 to 05 Degrees Celsius by the End of Century



|| Wednesday: January 15: 2020 || ά. The year 2019 was the second warmest year on record after 2016, according to the World Meteorological Organisation:WMO’s consolidated analysis of leading international datasets. Average temperatures for the five-year, 2015-2019 and ten-year, 2010-2019, periods were the highest on record. Since the 1980s each decade has been warmer than the previous one. This trend is expected to continue because of record levels of heat-trapping greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

The averaged across the five data sets used in the consolidated analysis, the annual global temperature in 2019 was 01.1°C warmer than the average for 1850-1900, used to represent pre-industrial conditions. 2016 remains the warmest year on record because of the combination of a very strong El Niño event, which has a warming impact and long-term climate change. “The average global temperature has risen by about 01.1°C since the pre-industrial era and ocean heat content is at a record level.” said WMO Secretary-General Dr Petteri Taalas.

“On the current path of carbon dioxide emissions, we are heading towards a temperature increase of 03 to 05 degrees Celsius by the end of century.”

Temperatures are only part of the story. The past year and decade have been characterised by retreating ice, record sea levels, increasing ocean heat and acidification and extreme weather. These have combined to have major impacts on the health and well-being of both humans and the environment, as highlighted by WMO’s Provisional Statement on the State of the Global Climate in 2019, which was presented at the UN Climate Change Conference, COP25, in Madrid. The full statement will be issued in March 2020.

“The year 2020 has started out where 2019 left off, with high-impact weather and climate-related events.  Australia had its hottest, driest year on record in 2019, setting the scene for the massive bushfires, which were so devastating to people and property, wildlife, eco-systems and the environment.” said Dr Taalas.

“Unfortunately, we expect to see much extreme weather throughout 2020 and the coming decades, fuelled by record levels of heat-trapping greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.” said Dr Taalas. More than 90 percent of the excess heat is stored within the world’s ocean and so ocean heat content is a good way to quantify the rate of global warming.

 A new Study, published on January 13, in Advances in Atmospheric Sciences , with data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration: National Centre for Environmental Information and the Institute of Atmospheric Physics showed that ocean heat content was at a record level in 2019. The past five years are the top five warmest years in the ocean historically with modern instruments and the past ten years are, also, the top ten years on record.

Modern temperature records began in 1850. WMO uses datasets, based on monthly climatological data from Global Observing Systems, from the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies and the United Kingdom’s Met Office Hadley Centre and the University of East Anglia’s Climatic Research Unit in the United Kingdom. 

It, also, uses reanalysis datasets from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts and its Copernicus Climate Change Service and the Japan Meteorological Agency.  This method combines millions of meteorological and marine observations, including, from satellites, with models to produce a complete reanalysis of the atmosphere. The combination of observations with models makes it possible to estimate temperatures at any time and in any place across the globe, even, in data-sparse areas, such as, the polar regions.

The spread between the five data sets was 0.15°C with both the lowest, 01.05°C and the highest, 01.20°C, being more than 01°C warmer than the pre-industrial baseline.

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Climate Change and Global Warming: Decade Ending 2019 Is Likely to Be the Hottest on Record: If We Do Not Take Urgent Climate Action Now Then We Are Heading for a Temperature Increase of More Than 03°C by the End of the Century



|| Tuesday: December 03: 2019 || ά. Exceptional global heat, driven by greenhouse gas emissions, mean this decade will most likely go down as the warmest on record, according to the World Meteorological Organisation:WMO, which released its provisional statement on the State of the Global Climate on Tuesday, December 03.

The Agency, also, finds that 2019 is on track to be the second or third warmest year in history, with the global average temperature during January through October, roughly, 01.1 degrees Celsius above the pre-industrial era. “If, we do not take urgent climate action now, then, we are heading for a temperature increase of more than 03°C by the end of the century, with ever more harmful impacts on human well-being.’’ said the WMO Secretary-General Dr Petteri Taalas.

“We are nowhere near on track to meet the Paris Agreement target.” he added, referring to the 2015 international accord to limit global warming to 01.5°C above pre-industrial levels. The Report finds that concentrations of carbon dioxide:CO2 in the atmosphere, which hit record levels last year, also, continued to rise in 2019.

Additionally, the sea level rise has increased due to melting of the ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica, while ocean heat is at record levels, with vital marine eco-systems being degraded. Several United Nations agencies provided input to the Report, which, also, details how weather and climate have an impact on health, food security, migration, eco-systems and marine life.

Climate variability and extreme weather events are among key drivers of the recent rise in global hunger, which now affects more than 820 million people.  “On a day to day basis, the impacts of climate change play out through extreme and ‘abnormal’ weather. And, once again in 2019, weather and climate related risks hit hard.” said Dr Taalas.

“Heatwaves and floods, which used to be ‘once in a century’ events are becoming more regular occurrences. Countries ranging from the Bahamas to Japan to Mozambique, suffered the effect of devastating tropical cyclones. Wildfires swept through the Arctic and Australia.”

Record-setting temperatures are increasingly putting health at risk, according to input provided by the World Health Organisation:WHO.  Major heatwaves in Japan in late July to early August caused more than 100 deaths and some 18,000 hospitalizations, for example.

About half the global population is now threatened by dengue as changes in climatic conditions are making it easier for the Aedes mosquito species to transmit the dengue virus. Southern Africa has experienced extensive dry periods due to a delay in the start of the seasonal rains, the Food and Agriculture Organisation:FAO reports. As cereal output is forecast to be around 08% below the five-year average, some 12.5 million people in the region will face food insecurity.

Climate-related disasters are, also, increasing displacement.  Figures from the UN refugee agency, UNHCR, show more than 10 million new internal displacements were recorded during the first half of the year, with seven million forced to move as a result of disasters, such as, cyclones and flooding. New displacements associated with weather extremes could more than triple, to around 22 million by the end of the year.

The provisional Report was released as governments meet in Madrid for the UN climate change negotiations, known as COP25. WMO will publish the final Statement on the State of the Climate, with complete 2019 data, in March.

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The Delhi Declaration: Countries Agree to Make Land Degradation Neutrality by 2030: Now It Is Time to Translate What Is Declared



|| Monday: September 16: 2019 || ά. A major United Nations Conference on fighting desertification agreed on Friday to make the Sustainable Development Goal target of achieving ‘land degradation neutrality’:LDN, a national target for action for all nations.

The Governments, which are party to the UN Convention to Combat Desertification:UNCCD, met in the Indian capital of New Delhi over ten days for COP14, adopting a series of new measures in the accord, known as, the Delhi Declaration.

Besides the LDN agreement, whereby countries have pledged to halt the degradation of land to the point where eco-systems and land use can no longer be supported, there was a landmark decision to boost global efforts to mitigate and manage the risks of crippling drought.

Countries will, also, now be expected to address insecurity of land tenure, including, gender inequality, promote land restoration to reduce land-related carbon emissions and mobilise innovative sources of finance from public and private sources to support the implementation of these decisions at national levels.

“We have woken up to the fact that we will see more frequent and severe droughts, a phenomenon, that will be exacerbated by climate change.” said Mr Ibrahim Thiaw, the Executive Secretary of the UNCCD.

“To my mind, this was the COP where we put people at the heart of what we do; with Parties adopting a breakthrough decision on land tenure rights and drawing on the unique voices, experiences of youth and women.”

Mr Thiaw drew attention to the contribution of COP 14 to the upcoming Climate Action Summit in New York, stressing that land restoration, at scale, is one of the cheapest solutions to address the global crises of climate and biodiversity loss.

He said that the key message to the upcoming New York Summit was clear, investing in land, unlocks multiple opportunities.

He said that it was important for businesses to be incentivised to help conserve land for sustainable use, through national regulations, that support sustainable land management and reward conservation, restoration and innovation. 

The Conference drew the interest of nearly 9,000 participants. Delegates, including, ministers, heads of United Nations and inter-governmental bodies, youth, local governments, business leaders and representatives of non-governmental organisations.

Mr Prakash Javadekar, India’s Minister for Environment, Forest and Climate Change and the President of COP 14, reiterated the country’s commitment to achieving land degradation neutrality by the SDG target year of 2030. He, also, promised to provide effective leadership to the UNCCD during his two-year presidency.


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Climate Change: It Is Already Getting to Be Too Late: No New Males: Climate Change Threat to Cape Verde Turtles: The Hapless Turtles Do Not Understand Their Existential Threats But Humanity Is Supposed to Do: Where Are Their Emergency Actions




|| Friday: July 12: 2019: University of Exeter News || ά. Rising temperatures could mean no male loggerhead turtles hatching at a key breeding ground by the end of this century, new research suggests. The University of Exeter Study, also, warns that, by 2100, more than 90% of loggerhead nests on the Cape Verde islands could incubate at lethally high temperatures, that could kill turtles before they hatch.

The sex of turtle hatchlings is determined by incubation temperature and this study combined current temperature and hatchling data with projections from the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change:IPCC. Even, under a scenario, based on low future emissions and warming, by 2100 just 0.14% of hatchlings would be male. Under mid and high-emissions scenarios, hatching of male loggerheads could cease entirely.

“Cape Verde hosts one of the largest nesting population of loggerhead turtles in the world, up to 15% of the global nesting total.” said Dr Lucy Hawkes, of the University of Exeter. ‘’We estimate that 84% of current hatchlings are female and warmer temperatures will increase this proportion.

Under all three climate change scenarios in our Study, by 2100 more than 99% of hatchlings would be female and under mid and high-emissions scenarios there could be no males at all.”

Lead Author Ms Claire Tanner, who worked on the Study as part of a masters at the University of Exeter, said, “What surprised us was how, even, the low emissions scenario has detrimental effects for this population. What this shows is that now is the time to act on climate change, before it is too late to prevent the estimations seen in this paper.”

The projections in the Study are based on current nesting behaviour and the researchers say that loggerheads could adapt to some extent by nesting earlier in the year, when it is cooler. Dr Hawkes said that natural selection should favour turtles, that do this but, the long lifespan of loggerheads and the speed of climate change will, probably, mean they can not evolve fast enough.

About 85% of loggerhead nests in Cape Verde are currently laid on Boa Vista, where incubation temperatures are coolest, so, most of the population can not switch to cooler islands. However, the Study says that they might benefit from ‘refugia’, places where specific features, such as, shade from trees or the landscape, provide cooler conditions.

It is not clear how long it will take the population to decline, if, males stop being produced, as the reproductive lifespan of males is not known, so older males, may, continue breeding for many years after new males stop being hatched.

The Study used data gathered by CSIC, Seville, Spain and three IPCC predictions for surface air temperature increase by the end of this century: low, 01.8°C, mid, 02.8°C and high, 03.4°C. Previous studies have been done on turtles breeding in Cape Verde but, this Study was unusual because it examined all the areas where turtles breed, known as rookeries.

The work was carried out with, an NGO, that studies the bio-diversity of the Cape Verde islands and has been working on sea turtles across the Cape Verde archipelago since 2013.

The Paper: Highly feminised sex-ratio estimations for the world’s third-largest nesting aggregation of loggerhead sea turtles Marine Ecology Progress Series: Claire E. Tanner, Adolfo Marco, Samir Martins, Elena Abella-Perez, Lucy A. Hawkes:::ω.

Caption: Common Snapping Turtle: Image: University of Manchester

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The European Union Environment and Climate Ministers Gather to Discuss Climate Crisis and Bio-diversity Loss Caused by Over-consumption Require Joint Solutions: And These Ministers Must Talk About Why the European Union Puts It Under the Carpet As to Why Many European Countries Are Still Digging Their Heads Deeper Into Coal




|| Thursday: July 11: 2019 || ά. The European Union’s Ministers for Environment and Climate discussed stepping up global climate action in their informal meeting. The first day of the meeting focused on the EU’s long-term climate strategy and messages to the UN Climate Action Summit to be held in September 2019. The ministers, also, discussed the EU’s objectives for halting the loss of bio-diversity. The Informal Meeting of the Ministers is being held on July 11-12 in Helsinki.

In addition to the ministers, Mr Miguel Arias Cañete, the Commissioner for Climate Action and Energy and Ms Karmenu Vella, the Commissioner for the Environment, Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, also, attended the first day of the meeting. The ministers noted that climate change and the loss of bio-diversity are part of the same sustainability crisis and, therefore, call for coherent solutions. Over the next two decades, Europe’s economy and prosperity need to be built on a new, sustainable foundation, which will require significant changes in the production and consumption habits of both people and businesses.

Finland’s Minister of the Environment and Climate Change Ms Krista Mikkonen, who is chairing the two-day meeting, said, “Europe’s future depends on our ability to find solutions to these challenges. The EU needs to set ambitious climate targets and concrete objectives to halt bio-diversity loss. We must have a clear vision of the future to be able to take key decisions on economic reform in the next few years.”.

One of the main objectives of Finland’s Presidency of the Council of the EU is to reach a common understanding within the EU on a long-term climate strategy. Based on the European Council conclusions from June 2019, Finland will take the discussion forward in various Council configurations. The ministers took up the issue in an informal setting at today’s meeting.

“For EU climate policy to be in line with the 01.5 degrees Celsius target, our aim should be net zero emissions, in other words, a balance between carbon emissions and sinks by 2050 at the very latest. We had a very open discussion today, that will help identify the key obstacles to be cleared to reach agreement by the end of the year. Many countries already support this objective but, a few details still need to be finalised. The transition to a zero-emissions society must be fair and we must address citizens’ concerns.” Ms Mikkonen said.

The ministers stressed that the EU now needs to show global climate leadership more urgently than ever before. The EU is leading by example and has passed its emissions reduction targets into law. It has, also, embedded climate issues into all policy sectors and its budget.

“What is crucial is that the EU has translated words into action. But we, too, need to do more to stop climate change. During Finland’s Presidency, we intend to hold discussions, that will prepare for updating the EU’s emissions reduction targets for 2030. Many member states, also, hoped that the Commission would prepare an analysis to support this work.” Ms Mikkonen said.

Finland’s Presidency will work on preparing the EU’s positions for the 2020 UN climate conference, which is due to set new targets for halting bio-diversity loss. During the informal ENVI meeting, the ministers emphasised the EU’s role in leading the way to promote biodiversity. The EU aims to agree ambitious, measurable targets with clear timelines for 2030, 2040 and 2050.

“What we’re doing now simply isn’t enough. To avoid irreversible impacts, we need a swift change of direction. Our discussions strongly highlighted the need to speed up and improve our work to stop the loss of bio-diversity. The EU needs to be prepared to review all its actions from the perspective of reinforcing bio-diversity. It’s a matter of preserving the foundations of human life.” Ms Mikkonen said.

Ms Cristiana Pașca Palmer, the United Nations Assistant Secretary General and the Executive Secretary of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity, delivered a keynote speech on bio-diversity. The ministers will resume their discussion of the EU’s efforts to halt bio-diversity loss at next autumn’s Environment Council. The goal is to prepare Council conclusions on the topic before the end of the year.

Finland holds the Presidency of the Council of the European Union between July 01 and December 31, 2019. In this capacity, Finland will chair both the formal Council meetings in Brussels or Luxembourg and the informal meetings of ministers held in Finland. The Presidency will host six informal meetings of ministers and a large number of meetings of working groups and experts, all of them at Finlandia Hall in Helsinki.:::ω.

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Pöyry Paves the Way: Turning Fossil-Based Plastics Into Bio-Based Materials: The Way Towards a Sustainable Future



|| Wednesday: May 29: 2019 || ά. Pöyry, a Finnish Company, has developed a Plastics to Bio concept and an initiative to address the global plastics problem, providing an affordable and economically viable way to decouple plastics from fossil-based materials and turn all plastics bio-based. The concept looks at the whole value chain all the way from material suppliers to consumers and demonstrates that there is a lucrative business case in replacing fossil plastics with bio-based plastics.

“Societies, companies and consumers recognise the magnitude of the plastics problem. Solutions to replace fossil plastics, including, recycling, are in constant development but, so far, there has not been a systemic concept to drive decoupling plastics from fossil based materials. Neither has increasing plastics recycling in a large enough scale been developed so far and in an affordable, economically viable and sustainable manner. Pöyry’s Plastics to Bio concept shows that within just ten years, most fossil based plastics could be replaced with bio-based materials.” says Mr Tomi Nyman, Principal, Pöyry’s Management Consulting Business Group.

The concept is based on two key areas: a substantial increase in recycling and the gradual replacing of fossil feedstock with bio-based feedstock in plastics production. An important tool in this implementation is developing a global deposit scheme for plastics collection and recycling.

Similar schemes are already in use in various countries either on national or retail chain level. A partnership and value chain are set up between the retailers and recyclers in such a way, that when a consumer buys a product from a store, a deposit value of, e.g, $0.1, is charged by the cashier to the consumer for the packaging. When returning the used packaging to the shop, the consumer receives the deposit value back either directly or as a receipt, which indicates the deposited value.

This amount of money can, then, be discounted from the next purchase in the same store. The returned plastic packaging is, then, regularly collected, transported and sorted for recycling and material reuse.
Plastics should feature an icon, which states indicatively the deposit value for packaging, for example, as 0.1 or 0.2 units per piece in the relevant currency or, alternatively, show a value per kg.

“There are, naturally, investments needed to make this change happen. For example, we will need recycling sites, waste management and new infrastructure for collection, sorting and logistics. Pöyry’s concept shows that the investments needed to introduce this scheme and, eventually, use just bio-based plastics will become cheaper than sourcing crude oil today to produce fossil based plastics.” Mr Nyman says.

The plastics production is set to grow from 400 million tonnes today to one billion tonnes in just 30 years, if, no measures are taken to address the plastics problem. Pöyry is ready to start solving the world’s plastics problem and help companies harness the value of recycled plastics and bio-based feedstock.

More information, contact Tomi Nyman: Principal: Pöyry Management Consulting: tomi.nyman at Tele: +358504481067
About ÅF Pöyry: ÅF Pöyry is an international leader within engineering, design and advisory services. We create solutions to support our customers worldwide to act on sustainability, as well as, the global trends of urbanisation and digitalisation. We are more than 16,000 devoted experts within the fields of infrastructure, industry and energy operating across the world to create sustainable solutions for the next generation.:::ω.

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Arctic Warming Will Accelerate Climate Change and Impact the Global Economy by Multi-trillion Dollars



|| Monday: April 29: 2019: Lancaster University News || ά. Carbon, released into the atmosphere by the increasing loss of Arctic permafrost, combined with higher solar absorption by the Earth’s surface due to the melting of sea ice and land snow, will accelerate climate change and have a multi-trillion dollar impact on the world economy. A new Paper, published in Nature Communications, shows a combination of these factors has the potential to increase the long-term economic impact of climate change by just under $70 trillion, under mitigation levels consistent with current national pledges to cut carbon emissions, 05% of the estimated total cost of climate change for this scenario.

Under the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change:IPCC Paris Agreement target of global temperature rises being limited to 01.5C from pre-industrial levels, the extra impact drops to $25 trillion, 04% of the total cost for this scenario. In both cases, the primary driver behind the additional costs is the emitted permafrost carbon. The inter-disciplinary research team hope their assessments will provide a better understanding of the socio-economic risks from climate change under different scenarios and help guide policy-makers towards prudent decisions on emissions reduction targets.

Researchers explored simulations of complex, advanced, physical models to quantify the strength of the permafrost carbon feedback:PCF, driven by the additional carbon, released from thawing permafrost and of the surface albedo feedback:SAF, driven by the extra solar energy, absorbed by the Earth’s surface as the white sea ice and land snow cover declines, exposing darker ocean and land.

Nearly, all climate policy studies to date, have implied a constant SAF and zero PCF. However, recent observations and computer models show the permafrost feedback is the stronger of the two and that both are non-linear, their strength changing in complex ways as the climate warms. This affects their impact on both the global climate and economy.

“Arctic sea ice and land snow currently contribute around a third each to the global albedo feedback.” said the Lead Author of the Paper, Mr Dmitry Yumashev, of the Pentland Centre for Sustainability in Business at Lancaster University.

“These two components are set to peak for global temperatures within the range, covered by the Paris Agreement but, if, the climate warms further, the summer and spring sea ice and land snow covers will retreat further north and the albedo feedback will actually weaken.

The permafrost feedback, however, grows progressively stronger in warmer climates. Both feedbacks are characterised by non-linear responses to warming, including, a varying lag between rising global temperature and permafrost carbon emissions.

Compared with zero PCF and constant SAF from present-day climate, legacy values used in climate policy modelling to this point, the combined non-linear PCF and SAF cause significant extra warming globally under low and medium emissions scenarios.’’

Low emissions scenarios in the study include meeting the 01.5°C and 02°C Paris Agreement targets relative to pre-industrial conditions by 2100, while medium emissions scenarios include mitigation levels consistent with current national pledges:NDCs. Under the NDCs, the world is set to warm by around 03°C relative to pre-industrial by 2,100.

High emissions scenarios, such as, the current business as usual trajectory:BaU, expected to lead to around 04°C of warming by 2,100 and cause by far the highest impacts on eco-systems and societies, are, also, included. Under these, the strength of the PCF reaches its peak and does not increase further, while the continued weakening of the SAF gradually cancels the warming effect of the PCF.

For the purposes of the research, other major planetary feedbacks, such as, those driven by changes in clouds and water vapour in response to warming, are assumed to remain constant, supported by the last two generations of climate models.

Under all scenarios, using the non-linear Arctic feedbacks compared to previous constant values leads to an increase to the total cost of climate change, consisting of the mitigation costs of cutting emissions, climate adaptation costs and residual climate-related impacts. The increases occur primarily through additional temperature-driven impacts on economy, eco-systems and human health and additional impacts from sea level rise.

All costs were estimated, using simulations in specially developed integrated assessment model PAGE-ICE, which includes simple statistical representations of the Arctic feedbacks, derived from complex models. It has multiple updates to climate science and economics, including, up-to-date uncertainty estimates.

Under the NDCs scenario, the additional estimated impact based on thousands of simulations of the nonlinear PCF and SAF is just under $70 trillion compared to their previously used values, exceeding, by around 10 times current estimates for long-terms economic gains from transit shipping routes and mineral resource extraction in the Arctic region.

With previous estimates for Arctic feedbacks, the total cost of climate change, associated with the 01.5C and 02C scenarios is virtually the same and is around $600 trillion, in comparison, the estimated cost of business as usual is around $2,000 trillion. Non-linear PCF and SAF add further $25 trillion to the $600 trillion figure for the 01.5C scenario and $34 trillion for the 02C scenario. Thus, the non-linear Arctic feedbacks make the more ambitious 01.5C target marginally more economically attractive.

Dr Yumashev further said, “Our findings support the need for more proactive mitigation measures to keep global temperature rise well below 02C. We hope, our work will lead to further assessments of multiple non-linear processes in the Earth’s climate system, both those associated with the Arctic and beyond.”

The research is part of the ICE-ARC project, funded by the European Union’s 7th Framework Programme, grant 603887.

The authors of the study are: Dmitry Yumashev, Gail Whiteman and Paul Young, of the Pentland Centre for Sustainability in Business and Lancaster Environment Centre at Lancaster University; Chris Hope, of the Judge Business School at the University of Cambridge; Kevin Schaefer, of the National Snow and Ice Date Centre at the University of Colorado, USA; Kathrin Riemann-Campe, of the Alfred Wegener Institute, Germany; Fernando Iglesias-Suarez, of the Institute of Physical Chemistry Rocasolano, Spain; Elchin Jafarov, of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA; Eleanor J Burke, of the UK Met Office and Yasin Elshorbany, of the University of South Florida, USA.:::ω.

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Stockholm Environment Institute: New Report Details How US Policy-Makers Can Phase Out Fossil Fuels: This Phase-Out Must Be Done Equitably Both as an Ethical Imperative and a Political Necessity



|| February 26: 2019 || ά. As the American Congress focuses anew on climate change, Stockholm Environment Institute:SEI researchers outline three principles to inform the pace and structure of a rapid phase-out of U.S fossil fuel production. This new SEI Working Paper aims to help federal and state policy-makers wind down oil, gas and coal extraction, through the use of principles, that consider not only economics and science but, also, equity and other critical social dimensions.

The Paper comes as the House Democrats, newly in control of the Chamber, have put climate change back on the Congressional agenda, with a slate of hearings scheduled over the next few days and weeks. “The U.S should take on a leadership role in aligning fossil fuel production with climate limits. It is one of the world’s very top fossil fuel producers, both historically and currently and has tremendous financial resources,” said Ms Jessica Koski, an SEI Associate, who is the Lead Author of the paper. “This phase-out must be done equitably, both as an ethical imperative and a political necessity.”

“With this Paper, we hope to provide a structure for guiding what will, no doubt, be a difficult dialogue.” said the Report Author Mr Peter Erickson, an SEI Senior Scientist. “Phasing out production comes with political challenges and it will require a democratic dialogue, that engages impacted communities and various stakeholders.”

Globally, meeting the global warming limits in the Paris Agreement will require fossil fuel consumption and production to, almost, immediately, peak, with a rapid decline thereafter. Several countries are already winding down new exploration and production. The Working Paper helps advance that conversation in the U.S, by outlining how the federal government and state-level resource managers could begin to fairly decide which regions need to phase out extraction most rapidly.

In their Working Paper, ‘Principles for Aligning U.S Fossil Fuel Extraction with Climate Limits’ Ms Koski and her colleagues detail three guiding principles, that policy-makers can use to inform the pace and structure of the necessary decline in production:

Reduce fossil fuel production at a pace consistent with climate protection. Move, even, faster where fuels are the most carbon-intensive and costly.

Accelerate the phase-out where communities are most resilient. Consider what financial resources can be made available to communities where adaptation will be more difficult and involve local communities in shaping their post-fossil-fuel economies.

Safeguard human rights, cultural resources and the local environment. Minimise harm by rapidly phasing out extraction where it threatens Indigenous rights, public health and areas of high conservation value.

“Federal and state agencies have an opportunity to ensure that the transition away from fossil fuels is equitable and fair, rather than sudden and disruptive.” said Co-author Mr Sivan Kartha, an SEI Senior Scientist. “The principles in our Paper will, hopefully, further the discussion, so policy-makers can plan an effective phase-out of fossil fuels, that has the buy-in of the American public.”

Read the Paper:::ω.

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