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Higher Inflammation in Older Age is Linked to Lower Bone Density

|| June 24: 2018: University of Southampton News || ά. Although, inflammation can arise from infection or injury, chronic inflammation can occur in older age due to ageing processes in the immune system. Higher levels of inflammation in older age has been linked to lower bone density, according to a new study carried out at the University of Southampton. Scientists from the University’s Medical Research Council Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit examined the relationship between levels of inflammation in early old age and bone density at the spine and the hip.

The relationship between levels of inflammation and change in bone density over a period of five years was, also, explored. The study, published in Osteoporosis International, showed that higher levels of adiponectin was related to lower bone density at the spine and hip and lower levels of interleukin-10:IL-10 was associated with faster decline in bone density at the spine. Adiponectin and IL-10 each modify the pro- and anti-inflammatory balance.

Lead Author, Mr Nicholas Fuggle, Researcher at the University of Southampton, said, “Low bone density increases the risk of osteoporosis, which affects so many older people and is extremely debilitating. This study highlights the importance of inflammatory markers in the development of osteoporosis. We hope that this study will help us develop potential ways of combatting the condition, which will lead to improvements in quality of life.”

Professor Cyrus Cooper, Director of the MRCLEU, said, “Poor bone health in older age is a leading cause of disability worldwide and has huge economic costs for society. These results will inform the development of lifecourse intervention strategies to promote better musculoskeletal health in later life.”

The study involved 365 men and women, aged 59-71 years when inflammation was assessed from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study and was funded by the Medical Research Council.

The work was funded and supported by the Medical Research Council of the UK, NIHR Biomedical Research Centres Southampton, Birmingham and Oxford, Arthritis Research UK, British Heart Foundation; and International Osteoporosis Foundation.

The Paper: Relationships between markers of inflammation and bone density: findings from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study: Published in Osteoporosis International:::ω.

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Lipid Molecules Can Be Used for Cancer Growth

|| June 10: 2018: Karolinska Institutet News: || ά. Cancer cells can, when the blood supply is low, use lipid molecules as fuel instead of blood glucose. This has been shown in animal tumour models by researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden in a study, published in Cell Metabolism. The mechanism, may, help explain why tumours, often, develop resistance to cancer drugs, that inhibit the formation of blood vessels.

Tumour growth and spread rely on angiogenesis, a process of growing new blood vessels, that supply the cancer cells with nutrients and hormones, including, glucose. Treatment with anti-angiogenic drugs reduces the number of blood vessels in the tumour, as well as, the blood glucose supply. Many such drugs have been developed and are now used in human patients for treating various cancer types.

However, the clinical benefits of anti-angiogenic drugs in cancer patients are generally low and the cancers treated, often, develop a resistance to drugs, especially, cancer types, that grow close to fat tissues, such as, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, liver cancer and prostate cancers.
In collaboration with Japanese and Chinese scientists, a research group at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden has discovered a new mechanism by which cancers can evade anti-angiogenic treatment and become resistant.

The reduction of tumour blood vessels results in low oxygenation in tumour tissues, a process, called, hypoxia. In the current study, the researchers show that hypoxia acts as a trigger to tell fat cells surrounding or within tumour tissues to break down the stored excessive lipid energy molecules. These lipid energy molecules can, when the blood supply is low, be used for cancer tissue expansion.

“Based on this mechanism, we propose that a combination therapy consisting of anti-angiogenic drugs and drugs blocking lipid energy pathways, would be more effective for treating cancers.

In animal tumour models, we have validated this very important concept, showing that combination therapy is superior to monotherapy.” says Professor Yihai Cao, at the Department of Microbiology, Tumour and Cell Biology at Karolinska Institutet, who led the study.
Professor Cao’s group now plans to work with drug companies and clinical oncologists to explore whether such a new combination therapy would improve the quality of life and lifespan in human cancer patients.

The study was financed by the Swedish Research Council, the Swedish Cancer Foundation, Karolinska Institutet, the Torsten Söderberg Foundation, the Tore Nilson Foundation, the Ruth and Richard Julin Foundation, the Ögonfonden Foundation, the Wera Ekström Foundation, the Lars Hierta Memorial Foundation, National Natural Science Foundation of China, the International Research Fund for Subsidy of Kyushu University School of Medicine Alumni, the Martin Rind Foundation, the Maud and Birger Foundation, the Alex and Eva Wallström Foundation, the Robert Lundberg Memorial Foundation, the Swedish Diabetes Foundation, the Swedish Childhood Cancer Fund, the European Research Council, the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, and the Novo Nordisk Foundation.

The Paper: Cancer lipid metabolism confers antiangiogenic drug resistance: Hideki Iwamoto, Mitsuhiko Abe, Yunlong Yang, Dongmei Cui, Takahiro Seki, Masaki Nakamura, Kayoko Hosaka, Sharon Lim, Jieyu Wu, Xingkang He, Xiaoting Sun, Yongtian Lu, Qingjun Zhou, Weiyun Shi, Takuji Torimura, Guohui Nie, Qi Li, and Yihai Cao: Cell Metabolism: Online: 31 May 31: 2018

Caption: Professor Yihai Cao: Karolinska Instituted: Image: Ulf Sirborn::: ω.

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