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When Stars Go Haywire How Does That Look Like: Like Going Haywire in Style



|| Thursday: June 18: 2020 || ά. The NASA:ESA Hubble Space Telescope demonstrates its full range of imaging capabilities with two new images of planetary nebulae. The images depict two nearby young planetary nebulae, NGC 6302, dubbed the Butterfly Nebula and NGC 7027. Both are among the dustiest planetary nebulae known and both contain unusually large masses of gas, which made them an interesting pair for study in parallel by a team of researchers.

As nuclear fusion engines, most stars live placid lives for hundreds of millions to billions of years. But near the end of their lives they can turn into crazy whirligigs, puffing off shells and jets of hot gas. Astronomers have used Hubble to dissect such crazy fireworks, happening in these two planetary nebulae. The researchers have found unprecedented levels of complexity and rapid changes in the jets and gas bubbles, blasting off of the stars at the centre of each nebula. Hubble is now allowing the researchers to converge on an understanding of the mechanisms, underlying this chaos. Well, it is not chaos but systemic chaos because the chaos does follow the universal laws. The hell, that is unleashed inside a nuclear fusion, happens, following precise universal laws. We maintain that there is no chaos in this Universe. What appears as such, as chaos, take the sun, for instance, it is literally, all-chaos of high-hell at all times but all that high-hell-chaos happens exactly as the universal laws enable them to do so.

The Hubble Space Telescope has imaged these objects before but, not for many years and never before with the Wide Field Camera three instrument across its full wavelength range, making observations in near-ultraviolet to near-infrared light. “These new multi-wavelength Hubble observations provide the most comprehensive view to date of both of these spectacular nebulae.” said Mr Joel Kastner of the Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York, Leader of the new Study. “As I was downloading the resulting images, I felt like a kid in a candy store.”

The new Hubble images show in vivid detail how both nebulae are splitting themselves apart on extremely short timescales, allowing astronomers to see changes over the past couple of decades. In particular, Hubble’s broad multi-wavelength views of each nebula are helping the researchers to trace the histories of shock waves in them. Such shocks are, typically, generated when fresh, fast stellar winds slam into and sweep up more slowly expanding gas and dust ejected by the star in its recent past, generating bubble-like cavities with well-defined walls.

Researchers suspect that at the heart of each nebula were two stars orbiting around each other. Evidence for such a central dynamic duo comes from the bizarre shapes of these nebulae. Each has a pinched, dusty waist and polar lobes or outflows, as well as, other, more complex symmetrical patterns.

A leading theory for the generation of such structures in planetary nebulae is that the mass-losing star is one of two stars in a binary system. The two stars orbit one another closely enough that they, eventually, interact, producing a gas disc around one or both stars. The disc, then, launches jets, that inflate polar-directed lobes of outflowing gas.

Another, related, popular hypothesis is that the smaller star of the pair may merge with its bloated, more rapidly evolving stellar companion. This very short-lived common envelope binary star configuration can, also, generate wobbling jets, forming the trademark bipolar outflows, commonly, seen in planetary nebulae. However, the suspect companion stars in these planetary nebulae have not been directly observed. Researchers suggest this, may be, because these companions are next to or, have already been swallowed by, far larger and brighter red giant stars.

NGC 6302, commonly known as, the Butterfly Nebula, exhibits a distinct S-shaped pattern, seen in reddish-orange in the image. Imagine a lawn sprinkler spinning wildly, throwing out two S-shaped streams. In this case it is not water in the air but, gas blown out at high speed by a star. And the ‘S’ only appears when captured by the Hubble camera filter, that records near-infrared emission from singly ionised iron atoms. This iron emission is indicative of energetic collisions between both slow and fast winds, which is most commonly observed in active galactic nuclei and supernova remnants.

"This is very rarely seen in planetary nebulae.” Said a team member Mr Bruce Balick of the University of Washington in Seattle. “Importantly, the iron emission image shows that fast, off-axis winds penetrate far into the nebula like tsunamis, obliterating former clumps in their paths and leaving only long tails of debris.”

The accompanying image of NGC 7027, which resembles a jewel bug, indicates that it had been slowly puffing away its mass in quiet, spherically symmetric or, perhaps, spiral patterns for centuries, until relatively recently. “Something recently went haywire at the very centre, producing a new cloverleaf pattern, with bullets of material shooting out in specific directions.” Mr Kastner said.

The Paper: The team’s paper, ‘First Results from a Panchromatic HST:WFC3 Imaging Study of the Young, Rapidly Evolving Planetary Nebulae NGC7027 and NGC6302 was published on June 15, 2020 in the journal Galaxies. The team of astronomers, who carried out  this Study consists of J. Kastner, J. Bublitz, B. Balick,  P. Moraga, A. Frank, and E. Blackman.

::: Caption: Image: ESA:Hubble :::

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Cosmic Dust Forms in Supernovae Blasts




|| February 22: 2019: Cardiff University News || ά. Scientists claim to have solved a longstanding mystery as to how cosmic dust, the building blocks of stars and planets, forms across the Universe. Cosmic dust contains tiny fragments or organic material and is spread out across the Universe. The dust is, primarily, formed in stars and is, then, blown off in a slow wind or a massive star explosion.

Up until now, astronomers have had little understanding as to why so much cosmic dust exists in the interstellar medium, with theoretical estimates, suggesting it should be obliterated by supernova explosions. A supernova is an event, that occurs upon the violent death of a star and is one of the most powerful events in the Universe, producing a shockwave, which destroys, almost, anything in its path.

Yet, new research, published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, has observed the survival of cosmic dust around the closest supernova explosion detected, Supernova 1987A. Observations, using NASA’s research aircraft, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy:SOFIA, has detected cosmic dust in a distinctive set of rings, that form part of Supernova 1987A.

The results seem to suggest that there is rapid growth of cosmic dust within the rings, leading the researchers to believe that dust, may, actually, be re-forming after it is destroyed in the wake of a supernova blast wave. This immediacy, that the post-shock environment, might be, ready to form or re-form dust, had never been considered before and, may be, pivotal in fully understanding how cosmic dust is both created and destroyed.

“We, already, knew about the slow-moving dust in the heart of 1987A.” said Dr Mikako Matsuura, the Lead Author of the Paper from the School of Physics and Astronomy. “It formed from the heavy elements, created in the core of the dead star. But the SOFIA observations tell us something completely new.”

Cosmic dust particles can be heated from tens to hundreds of degrees, causing them to glow at both infrared and millimetre wavelengths. Observations of millimetre-wave dust emission can, generally, be carried out from the ground, using telescopes; however, observations in the infrared are, almost, impossible due to interference from the water and carbon dioxide in the Earth’s atmosphere.

By flying above most of the obscuring molecules, SOFIA provides access to portions of the infrared spectrum not available from the ground.’’:::ω.

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