The Arkive
|| Year Gamma: London: Friday: July 13: 2018 ||
First Published: September 24: 2015
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United Kingdom The British Medical Association Annual Conference 2018 Told: The Foundation of General Practice Is at Risk of Collapse But Can Be Rebuilt

|| June 26: 2018 || ά. The UK GP Leader has told the country’s doctors that the foundation of general practice on which the NHS depends has ‘serious structural faults’ but that he is committed to rebuilding it to ensure the future of the health service. Speaking to the British Medical Association:BMA members at its Annual Conference 2018, taking place in Brighton, Dr Richard Vautrey, the BMA GP Committee UK Chair, highlighted the invaluable footing, that primary care provides for the health service, but said that that was at risk as GPs report unmanageable workload pressures, hundreds of practices close and doctors leave the profession.

Delivering his speech at the Brighton Centre, Dr Vautrey said, For 70 years, general practice has been the foundation on which the NHS has been built. For 70 years general practice is where the vast majority of patient contacts have occurred, where, generation after generation, have been looked after by GPs and their teams, embedded within their community, providing care, even, before the cradle and, often, after the grave to those left behind, grieving the loss of loved ones. It’s been on this foundation of general practice and the primary care we provide, that other NHS services have depended.

Dr Vautrey went onto saying, We’ve managed demand, enabled efficient working elsewhere in the system, directed patients to the right specialist service, been innovative in care pathway design and, above all, managed clinical risk on behalf of the NHS as a whole. But when nearly 40 per cent of GPs intend to quit direct patient care in the next five years and over 90 per cent of GPs are reporting considerable or high workload pressures, we know that the foundation of general practice has serious structural faults.

Exiting the European Union: Scotland Will Struggle to Compete for Migrant Workers

|| June 25: 2018: University of Glasgow News || ά. New research conducted by the universities of Edinburgh and Glasgow suggests that a post-EU Scotland is likely to find itself losing out on much-needed low-skilled migrant labour from the European Economic Area:EEA to English-speaking countries, such as, North America, Australia, and to countries within the EEA. he study, ‘Choices Ahead: Approaches to Lower Skilled Labour Migration After Brexit’ investigated how migrants reach decisions about where to work, it found that key Scottish sectors, such as, agriculture, care, construction and hospitality are likely to lose out, when the current arrangements end in 2019.

The relatively high level of flexibility and security offered by the current arrangements gives Scotland and other areas of the UK a competitive advantage over destinations, such as, the USA. In addition to factors affecting migrant decisions, the report considered visa schemes available in other industrialised countries and assessed how these chimed with migrant motivations. The authors contrasted these options with current proposals for regulating migration to lower-skilled jobs once free movement ends. They identified a lack of joined-up thinking, meaning that the current proposals failed to balance the skills needs of key sectors with, for example, the demographic needs of Scotland and Scotland’s rural areas in particular.

Professor Rebecca Kay, Co-author, from the University of Glasgow's School of Social and Political Sciences, said, "Each year thousands of European nationals fill lower-skilled job vacancies in many UK industries like agriculture and care work. Many have stayed longer-term, raising families and contributing to their local communities.

Policy makers designing new immigration policy must consider the varied needs of these workers and the attractiveness of the UK as a destination. Policy design will impact both on our ability to attract migrant workers at all and on the types of migrants, who are willing to come to or settle in our country."

Her Co-author Dr Sarah Kyambi of the University of Edinburgh, said, "The UK is ill-served by immigration policymakers not considering the full range of goals to be pursued from immigration and not exploring the potential of the full range of programmes to meet them.

These case studies from other industrialised countries show that the range of programmes for migration into lower skilled work is wider than temporary, restrictive schemes.

Where labour needs are longer term or immigration plays a role in meeting demographic challenges, more flexible and generous regimes are more appropriate. As well as, competing to attract ‘the brightest and the best’, it is time to recognise the value of immigration into lower skilled work."

Another Co-author, Professor Christina Boswell of the University of Edinburgh, said, "Most of the discussion about immigration needs after Brexit has focused on higher skilled occupations with the assumption being that we can regulate lower-skilled immigration through temporary and seasonal schemes.

But experience from other countries suggests that such temporary schemes can have serious drawbacks, leading to vulnerability, a high level of churn and challenges with enforcement. And such restricted rights programmes are likely to be far less appealing to EEA nationals."

The report’s policy recommendations include:

Policy makers need to balance a range of labour market, demographic and social goals in developing policies to regulate low-skilled migration. But crucially, they, also, need to consider how different programmes are likely to affect decisions on mobility and settlement. A shift to a more restrictive system is likely to have substantial effects on the supply of EEA nationals into lower-skilled jobs.

Whatever programme is adopted, the UK and Scotland will have to compete with other countries as potential migrant destinations. For EEA nationals, other countries within the EEA will become attractive alternatives. Other English-speaking countries, e.g, USA, Canada or Australia, with more complex entry requirements, may, also, begin to emerge as more attractive destinations, especially, for younger migrants with good English-language skills.’

The authors of the report are Dr Sarah Kyambi, University of Edinburgh , Professor Rebecca Kay, University of Glasgow, Professor Christina Boswell, University of Edinburgh, Dr Holly Porteous, University of Glasgow.

The research was principally funded by the Economic and Social Research Council:ESRC with a small contribution from the Scottish Government. :::ω.

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The Scottish Parliament Justice Committee Repot: Too Many People Particularly Female Prisoners are Kept in Remand Unnecessarily Since Only 30% of the Female Remand Prisoners Go Onto Getting a Custodial Sentence

|| June 25: 2018 || ά. The Scottish Parliament’s Justice Committee has found that the proportion of remand prisoners in Scotland is high, particularly, amongst female prisoners, where remand prisoners account for, almost, a quarter of the total female prison population. The Committee, also, found that time spent on remand can result in disruption to an individual’s benefits, housing, employment, medical treatment and to their wider family.

The Committee heard that being on remand is largely unproductive and that access to services for these prisoners is limited. Significantly, only 30% of the women held on remand go on to receive custodial sentences. Whilst the Committee was strongly in favour of remand being used where there appears to be a risk to wider society, it has criticised the lack of data to explain the decisions of ‘sheriffs or ‘judges’ when bail is refused.

Furthermore, the committee suggested there should be greater consistency in terms of effective alternatives to remand, such as, supervised bail models and that these are sufficiently resourced.

Speaking as the report was published, Committee Convener, Ms Margaret Mitchell MSP, said, ‘’The need to protect society and to keep those, who are a threat to the public off the streets is paramount.

However, the number of those held on remand in our prisons now is higher than in the late 1990s and early 2000s. The Committee was concerned, therefore, to hear that there is a lack of clear understanding as to what lies behind this rise.

In short, we want to make sure that those held on remand are there for a good reason. This is, especially, important as the disruption to the life of a person sent to prison on remand but, who then does not receive a custodial sentence, can be profound.”

Remand is either when an accused person, following a first appearance in court, is kept in custody prior to trial or when a convicted person is kept in custody prior to sentencing or when a convicted person is kept in custody pending an appeal.

This report is primarily concerned with the first category of remand.

Read the Report:::ω.

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