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 First Published: September 24: 2015
The Humanion

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Neuroniverse Arkive Year Beta

 

Between the Neuroniverse and the Universe Life is Spread Where Finite and Infinity are Each Other's Home

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

We are more than our neurons or their combinations, co-relations, conjunctions, functions and interactions that are conducted through their gap junctions, synapses or action potentials. We are more than the cells, tissues, organs, systems, DNAs, RNAs, genes etc and their ultimate unification into a whole mechanism and system of magnificence. We are an infinity unfolding itself in the name of the human mind which, through the physiology of what on appearance is a human physique, it becomes, dreams, imagines, creates, loves and does human: the most astonishing of all things that we find on this Universe. All we have to do is to look at its unity off the billion plus expressions of its self and wonder about its endless expressive diversity off the same self in billion plus instances to realise that this human mind

Poetry of Neurology

 is magnificent a thing for the purpose of which the neurology is given to it as the most sophisticated, most elaborately engineered, most complexity-strewn an architecture, a most awe-inspiring bio-chemico-genetico-mechanism that we humans will ever see in this Universe; nothing else will ever surpass this magnificence. And it all begins with the book of genome that has already been written that will have all the tools to keep on writing the future of a human physiology and with that begins the human life and soon the Cardiology is formed and follows neurology: the duo or the two in one or the one in two: for they, neither ends nor begins alone but, rather, both just clasp, grasp, sew, knit, cut, run, crisscross, bind, bend, blend and flows in, out, between and through the human physiology in such an 'infinity of subtle, intricate and sublime artistry' that the entire creation of this Universe does not have a parallel to show next to it. And with this Cardiology and Neurology the human becomes more than a physiology:

it becomes a human mind and that has not been written out unlike the genome which has been and here is where the entire life of this human mind is as if it has got infinity of white papers bundled into a beautiful blank book that no one can know how to write but that human mind alone does and this is where humanity is, this is what humanity is and this is how humanity is and this why we publish The Humanion to write a Beautiful Book out of those blank white pages of that book where genome alone can never write a single word unless The Sanctum Mayakardium and The High Neuranium join forces to make 'one': the one that is exactly like the heart with two atria; or the one that is exactly like the brain with two hemispheres: it is two in one and one in two. And here is to this awe, to Humanity.

I Give You My Neuroniverse

Imagine a nano-universe beyond reach of our senses
That resides beneath the faces of things and they are
Guided and played by the same laws where the same
Motion and statics same rises and falls and calls roll on

Imagine that as with a proper infinity there is another
Which is infinitesimal or rather a micro-infinity folded
Inside the things that form the space-time realities and
There this nano-universe goes on making its music that

No-human orchestra can play no conductor nor player
Can reach or touch or break their unfathomable bounds
But be amazed by only their nano-seismic nanotheatrics

That science will forever bring out as glances and traces
In this nanoverse imagine this neuroniverse centrica-sun
I give you my Neuroniverse hold behold and rise a Rose

Munayem Mayenin: December 20: 2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Neuroniverse  
A Neuroseismic Discovery for Medicine: New Type of Long-Term Potentiation Discovered That is Controlled by Kainate Receptors

|| February 14: 2017: University of Bristol News || ά. The discovery of a new mechanism that controls the way nerve cells in the brain communicate with each other to regulate our learning and long-term memory could have major benefits to understanding how the brain works and what goes wrong in neurodegenerative disorders such as epilepsy and dementia. The breakthrough, published in Nature Neuroscience, was made by scientists at the University of Bristol and the University of Central Lancashire. The findings will have far-reaching implications in many aspects of neuroscience and understanding how the brain works.

The human brain contains around 100-billion nerve cells, each of which makes about 10,000 connections to other cells, called synapses. Synapses are constantly transmitting information to and receiving information from other nerve cells. A process, called long-term potentiation:LTP, increases the strength of information flow across synapses. Lots of synapses communicating between different nerve cells form networks and LTP intensifies the connectivity of the cells in the network to make information transfer more efficient. This LTP mechanism is how the brain operates at the cellular level to allow us to learn and remember. However, when these processes go wrong they can lead to neurological and neurodegenerative disorders.

Precisely how LTP is initiated is a major question in neuroscience. Traditional LTP is regulated by the activation of special proteins at synapses called NMDA receptors. This study, by Professor Jeremy Henley and Co-workers reports a new type of LTP that is controlled by kainate receptors.

This is an important advance as it highlights the flexibility in the way synapses are controlled and nerve cells communicate. This, in turn, raises the possibility of targeting this new pathway to develop therapeutic strategies for diseases like dementia, in which there is too little synaptic transmission and LTP, and epilepsy where there is too much inappropriate synaptic transmission and LTP.

Jeremy Henley, Professor of Molecular Neuroscience in the University’s School of Biochemistry in the Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, said, “These discoveries represent a significant advance and will have far-reaching implications for the understanding of memory, cognition, developmental plasticity and neuronal network formation and stabilisation. In summary, we believe that this is a groundbreaking study that opens new lines of inquiry which will increase understanding of the molecular details of synaptic function in health and disease.”

Dr Milos Petrovic, Co-author of the study and Reader in Neuroscience at the University of Central Lancashire added, “Untangling the interactions between the signal receptors in the brain not only tells us more about the inner workings of a healthy brain but also provides a practical insight into what happens when we form new memories. If we can preserve these signals it may help protect against brain diseases.

“This is certainly an extremely exciting discovery and something that could potentially impact the global population. We have discovered potential new drug targets that could help to cure the devastating consequences of dementias, such as Alzheimer’s disease. Collaborating with researchers across the world in order to identify new ways to fight disease like this is what world-class scientific research is all about, and we look forward to continuing our work in this area.”

The study was conducted by researchers at the University of Bristol and the University of Central Lancashire:UCLan, with support from academics from India, France and the Czech Republic. The study was funded by the European Research Council, the Medical Research Council:MRC, the British Heart Foundation and the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council:BBSRC.

Professor Jeremy Henley

Understanding the processes that dictate the distribution, maintenance and dynamics of neurotransmitter receptors is of fundamental importance to the molecular basis of fast excitatory transmission, synaptic plasticity and brain function. The Henley Lab is interested in the mechanisms by which neurotransmitter receptors are targeted to, retained at and removed from synapses under normal, stimulated and disease conditions. Receptors share common biosynthetic and endocytic pathways but important specific differences allow selective regulation.

Increased understanding of the mechanisms of these processes will give important insights into synapse formation, stabilisation and plasticity and thus into the cellular mechanisms underlying learning and memory and some neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, we focus on the roles of posttranslational modifications, such as SUMOylation, and protein-protein interactions at AMPA and kainate receptors.

To address these questions we use a wide range of molecular, biochemical, cell biology and imaging techniques including the use of viral transduction and fluorophore protein tagging technology to visualise the dynamics of receptor movement in living neurones in real time.

Activities:Findings

Molecular and functional characterisation of AMPA and kainate receptors
AMPA and kainate receptor trafficking, functional surface expression and recycling at synapses
Neuronal receptor trafficking in plasticity and disease
Neuronal receptor interacting proteins
Posttranslational modification in synapses
Role of SUMOylation in pre- and postsynaptic function
SUMOylation in neuronal disease

Teaching: Anatomical Sciences Year I: Lectures in Neuroscience Module. Year II: Lectures in Neuroscience Module & Neuroendocrinology Module; Year III: Neuroscience Option organizer, Lectures in Molecular Neurobiology Module & Basic Techniques Module

Paper: ‘Metabotropic action of postsynaptic kainate receptors triggers hippocampal LTP’ by Milos M. Petrovic, Silvia Viana da Silva, James P. Clement, Ladislav Vyklicky, Christophe Mulle, Inmaculada M González-González, and Jeremy M. Henley is published in Nature Neuroscience. ω.

Whatever Your Field of Work and Wherever in the World You are, Please, Make a Choice to Do All You Can to Seek and Demand the End of Death Penalty For It is Your Business What is Done in Your Name. The Law That Makes Humans Take Part in Taking Human Lives and That Permits and Kills Human Lives is No Law. It is the Rule of the Jungle Where Law Does Not Exist. The Humanion

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Neuroscientists Get a Glimpse Into the Workings of the Baby Brain

Inset images: Baby Toby and his MRI Machine: University of Sheffield: Background image: Magnetic Reconnection: NASA Image


|| February 11: 2017: The McGovern Institute for Brain Research News: Anne Trafton Writing || ά. In adults, certain regions of the brain’s visual cortex respond preferentially to specific types of input, such as faces or objects but how and when those preferences arise has long puzzled neuroscientists. One way to help answer that question is to study the brains of very young infants and compare them to adult brains. However, scanning the brains of awake babies in an MRI machine has been proven to be difficult. Now, neuroscientists at MIT have overcome that obstacle, adapting their MRI scanner to make it easier to scan infants’ brains as the babies watch movies featuring different types of visual input.

Using these data, the team found that in some ways, the organisation of infants’ brains is surprisingly similar to that of adults. Specifically, brain regions that respond to faces in adults do the same in babies, as do regions that respond to scenes. “It suggests that there’s a stronger biological predisposition than I would have guessed for specific cortical regions to end up with specific functions.” says Rebecca Saxe, a Professor of Brain and Cognitive Sciences and member of MIT’s McGovern Institute for Brain Research. Saxe is the Senior Author of the study, which appears in the January 10 issue of Nature Communications.

The paper’s Lead Author is former MIT graduate student Ben Deen, who is now a postdoctoral Researcher at Rockefeller University. Functional magnetic resonance imaging:MRI is the go-to technique for studying brain function in adults. However, very few researchers have taken on the challenge of trying to scan babies’ brains, especially while they are awake.

“Babies and MRI machines have very different needs.” Saxe points out. “Babies would like to do activities for two or three minutes and then move on. They would like to be sitting in a comfortable position and in charge of what they’re looking at.” On the other hand, “MRI machines would like to be loud and dark and have a person show up on schedule, stay still for the entire time, pay attention to one thing for two hours and follow instructions closely.” she says.

To make the setup more comfortable for babies, the researchers made several modifications to the MRI machine and to their usual experimental protocols. First, they built a special coil, part of the MRI scanner that acts as a radio antenna, that allows the baby to recline in a seat similar to a car seat. A mirror in front of the baby’s face allows him or her to watch videos and there is space in the machine for a parent or one of the researchers to sit with the baby.

The researchers also made the scanner much less noisy than a typical MRI machine. “It’s quieter than a loud restaurant.” Saxe says. “The baby can hear their parent talking over the sound of the scanner.”

Once the babies, who were four to six months old, were in the scanner, the researchers played the movies continuously while scanning the babies’ brains. However, they only used data from the time periods when the babies were actively watching the movies. From 26 hours of scanning 17 babies, the researchers obtained four hours of usable data from nine babies.

“The sheer tenacity of this work is truly amazing.” says Charles Nelson, a Professor of Paediatrics at Boston Children’s Hospital, who was not involved in the research. “The fact that they pulled this off is incredibly novel.” Obtaining this data allowed the MIT team to study how infants’ brains respond to specific types of sensory input and to compare their responses with those of adults.

“The big-picture question is, how does the adult brain come to have the structure and function that you see in adulthood? How does it get like that?” Saxe poses the question. “A lot of the answer to that question will depend on having the tools to be able to see the baby brain in action. The more we can see, the more we can ask that kind of question.”

The researchers showed the babies videos of either smiling children or outdoor scenes such as a suburban street seen from a moving car. Distinguishing social scenes from the physical environment is one of the main high-level divisions that our brains make when interpreting the world. “The questions we’re asking are about how you understand and organise your world, with vision as the main modality for getting you into these very different mindsets.” Saxe says. “In adults, there are brain regions that prefer to look at faces and socially relevant things and brain regions that prefer to look at environments and objects.”

The scans revealed that many regions of the babies’ visual cortex showed the same preferences for scenes or faces seen in adult brains. This suggests that these preferences form within the first few months of life and refutes the hypothesis that it takes years of experience interpreting the world for the brain to develop the responses that it shows in adulthood.

The researchers also found that there are some differences in the way that babies’ brains respond to visual stimuli. One is this that they do not seem to have regions found in the adult brain that are 'highly selective', meaning these regions prefer features such as human faces over any other kind of input, including human bodies or the faces of other animals. The babies also showed some differences in their responses when shown examples from four different categories, not just faces and scenes but also bodies and objects.

“We believe that the adult-like organisation of infant visual cortex provides a scaffolding that guides the subsequent refinement of responses via experience, ultimately leading to the strongly specialised regions observed in adults.” Deen says.

Saxe and her colleagues now hope to try to scan more babies between the ages of three and eight months so they can get a better idea of how these vision-processing regions change over the first several months of life. They also hope to study even younger babies to help them discover when these distinctive brain responses first appear.

About the McGovern Institute: The McGovern Institute for Brain Research at MIT is led by a team of world-renowned neuroscientists committed to meeting two great challenges of modern science: understanding how the brain works and discovering new ways to prevent or treat brain disorders. The McGovern Institute was established in 2000 by Patrick J. McGovern and Lore Harp McGovern, with the goal of improving human welfare, communication and understanding through their support for neuroscience research. The director is Robert Desimone, formerly the Head of Intramural Research at the National Institute of Mental Health. ω.

Whatever Your Field of Work and Wherever in the World You are, Please, Make a Choice to Do All You Can to Seek and Demand the End of Death Penalty For It is Your Business What is Done in Your Name. The Law That Makes Humans Take Part in Taking Human Lives and That Permits and Kills Human Lives is No Law. It is the Rule of the Jungle Where Law Does Not Exist. The Humanion

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Neuroniverse
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Image: eLifeSciences

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The Image of The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, used, on the right hand column of this page is the brief window that may be presented at this moment since the hospital is going through renovation work so that it has been wearing the 'body armour' of scaffolding for a long time! This is the only photo that could be taken and used. Therefore, we wait to see the hospital back to its own skin!

Light Bloom

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Oil on Fabrics

Queen Charlotte's and Chelsea Hospital: London

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Western Eye Hospital London September 29: 2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Royal London Hospital for Integrated Medicine

The 
Earth

 

  The 
Moon

 

The Lake Eden Eye

 

 

 

 

The Window of the Heavens Always Open and Calling: All We Have to Do Is: To Choose to Be Open, Listen and Respond

 

 

 

Imagine a Rose-Boat

Imagine a rose floating like a tiny little boat on this ocean of infinity
And raise your soul-sail on this wee-little boat and go seeking out
All along feed on nothing but the light that you gather only light
Fear shall never fathom you nor greed can tempt nor illusion divert
For Love you are by name by deeds you are love's working-map

 

 

Only in the transparent pool of knowledge, chiselled out by the sharp incision of wisdom, is seen the true face of what truth is: That what  beauty paints, that what music sings, that what love makes into a magic. And it is life: a momentary magnificence, a-bloom like a bubble's miniscule exposition, against the spread of this awe-inspiring composition of the the Universe. Only through the path of seeking, learning, asking and developing, only through the vehicles and vesicles of knowledge, only through listening to the endless springs flowing beneath, outside, around and beyond our reach, of wisdom, we find the infinite ocean of love which is boundless, eternal, and being infinite, it makes us, shapes us and frees us onto the miracle of infinite liberty: without border, limitation or end. There is nothing better, larger or deeper that humanity can ever be than to simply be and do love. The Humanion

 

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The Humanion Online Daily from the United Kingdom for the World: To Inspire Souls to Seek

At Home in the Universe : One Without Frontier. Editor: Munayem Mayenin

All copyrights @ The Humanion: London: England: United Kingdom: Contact Address: editor at thehumanion dot com

First Published: September 24: 2015