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Humanity Will Continue to Live an Inferior Life Than What is Possible Until the Two Halves, Women and Men, with All Individuals in Them, are Absolutely, Fundamentally and Jubilantly Equal at Liberty. Humanity, Therefore, Is Not and Can Not Be Free Until All Humans are Equals for Only by the Yardstick of This Equality Their State of Being Free Can Be Measured. In Other Words, There Can Not Exist Liberty Unless There Exists Equality Between and Among All Humans and This State of Equality Can Not Come to Exist So Long There Remain Two Groups of Humans: The Powerful and The Powerless: Whereby the Former Controls the Later and Creates, Maintains and Carries Forward the Perpetual State of Inequality: Economically, Politically, Judicially, Constitutionally, Socially, Culturally and Spiritually. To Reach the State of Equality and Liberty, the Task Before Humanity is, Therefore, to Change This State by Taking Away Ownership and Money and, with Them, the Power They Generate and Confer, That Lets One Small Group of Humans, The Powerfuls, Subjugating the Vast Multitude of Humans, The Powerless, Under Their Dictatorship. For Only by Taking Away 'the Gun' of the Power of the Powerfuls, Humanity Can Bring About the State of Liberty, as Well as, Equality at Once: Equality and Liberty Can Not and Do Not Exist Separately But Together and Simultaneously. Equality and Liberty Exist as The Promethumean Fire: In Which There is the Light and There is the Heat in One Flame: The Humanion Stands Here on the Path of Humanics: A State of Liberty for All Humanity at Equality. The Promethumean: Where Prometheus is Not Seen as a Man But a Human

 

 

Year Gamma: London: Friday: February 09: 2018
First Published: September 24: 2015

Change: Either Happens or Is Made: When It is Not Made It Happens Regardless in Which We Become Mere Logs and Get Washed Away in and by Utterly Mechanical Forces of Dehumanisation: When Made Change is Created by Our Conscious Choices, Efforts, Initiatives and Works: In the Former We Let Go Off Our Humanity So That Dehumanisation Determines and Dictates the Existence of Our Sheer Physiologies: But in the Later We Claim, Mark and Create Our Humanity as to the Change We Choose to Make and Create It Onto Reality: To Nurture, Foster, Support, Sustain, Maintain, Enhance, Expand, Empower and Enrich the Very Humanity That We Are:  As Individuals, As Families, As Communities and As Societies All of Which Now Exist in the Fabrics of Time-Space of What is Called Civic Society: One That Exists by Natural Justice and Functions by the Rule of Law: Ensuring Liberty and Equality, Along with Purpose and Meaning of Existence, Exist in Each and Every Soul Equally at All Times: The Humanion

 

 

 

 

 

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Life-Elle Arkive Year Beta 2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Life Elle for Life Living Health Well Being and Homeostasis

Life-Elle Arkive Year Alpha: September 24: 2015-September 23: 2016

 
 
A New Million Pound Project to Help Shape Policies That Tackle Diet-Related Non-Communicable Diseases

|| September 23: 2017: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine News || ά. The most effective measures to improve people’s diets and help reduce the rates of obesity, type two diabetes and cardiovascular disease, are to be evaluated in a new research project, led by Dr Laura Cornelsen, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, who has been awarded a Career Development Fellowship from the Medical Research Council:MRC worth £01 million over five years. The MRC Career Development Awards support researchers, looking to establish their own teams for challenging and ambitious research programmes.

The research will consider the impact of measures, which are the cause of much debate in tackling poor diets, changes in food prices or industry-led voluntary changes, such as, product reformulation, changing package sizes or removing sweets from till checkouts. This innovative five-year programme will use recent data on household food and beverage expenditures in Britain, spanning over five years to analyse food and drink choices and purchases for consumption both in and outside the home. Preventable non-communicable diseases:NCDs, including, obesity and type two diabetes, affect populations all around the world. According to the World Health Organisation, NCDs kill an estimated 40 million people annually, equivalent to 70% of all deaths globally.

Obesity, driven by overconsumption of unhealthy food and drinks, along with lower than recommended intake of healthier foods, such as, fruit and vegetables, are among the key modifiable risk factors to NCDs.

In the UK, obesity rates started to slow in the early 2000’s but are still increasing, with the prevalence expected to grow from 26% in 2015 to 35% in 2030. A 2014 report estimated the UK economic burden from morbidity associated with obesity and related NCDs could be as high as £47 billion per year. This includes a direct cost to health services as well taking into the account the impact from lost productivity and premature death.

Food prices, including price promotions, affect demand for food and drink by influencing consumer purchases and their consumption habits. Taxes and subsidies are therefore often seen as potential targets for policymakers to influence healthier diets. However, it is unclear how food industry-led voluntary changes, such as product reformulation, have affected consumer behaviour and therefore diets.

Dr Laura Cornelsen, Assistant Professor in Public Health Economics at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, said, “I am delighted and very grateful to have received this fellowship from the Medical Research Council. Obesity and other non-communicable diseases are some of the world’s most significant health issues and people’s diets have a major role to play in these conditions, which is why more research is needed to understand food and beverage purchase behaviours.

Recent studies have mainly focused around the taxing of sugar-sweetened drinks but wider assessments of health-related food policies or voluntary food industry-led changes are scarce. There is debate over which strategies are effective in increasing the availability and consumption of healthier products and reducing the consumption of products that are less beneficial to health.

Our research will help inform policymakers to adapt effective measures, or even to help avoid policies, that, may, do more harm than good. This will support well-resourced countries, such as, the UK, as well as, developing nations where governments aim to seek out effective, proven solutions to combat the growing prevalence of non-communicable diseases.” ω.

Image: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

Whatever Your Field of Work and Wherever in the World You are, Please, Make a Choice to Do All You Can to Seek and Demand the End of Death Penalty For It is Your Business What is Done in Your Name. The Law That Makes Humans Take Part in Taking Human Lives and That Permits and Kills Human Lives is No Law. It is the Rule of the Jungle Where Law Does Not Exist. The Humanion

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New Study Shows the Dermatological Effects of Hard Water on the Skin

 

|| September 21: 2017 || ά. Hard water damages our protective skin barrier and could contribute to the development of eczema, a new study has shown. Researchers from the University of Sheffield and King’s College London have discovered that exposing the skin to hard water damages the skin barrier, which is our defence against outside threats, such as, bacteria or sun burn and increases the sensitivity of the skin to potential irritants found in everyday wash products, such as, soap or washing powder. Hard water contains high levels of calcium and magnesium ions, that bind to surfactants, such as, sodium lauryl sulfate:SLS and sodium lauryl ether sulfate:SLES, which act as detergents or wetting agents, making them insoluble, so they precipitate onto the skin.

Skin pH is normally acidic but hard water has high alkalinity, which means it can raise the skin surface pH. A shift towards alkaline pH disturbs the skin’s natural function as a physical barrier and leaves it prone to colonisation by, potentially, pathogenic bacteria, which can cause infection. Lead Author of the study, Dr Simon Danby from the University of Sheffield’s Department of Infection, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease, said, “By damaging the skin barrier, washing with hard water may contribute to the development of eczema – a chronic skin condition characterised by an intensely itchy red rash. “Patients with eczema are much more sensitive to the effects of hard water than people with healthy skin. This increase in sensitivity is associated with a genetic predisposition to a skin barrier defect brought about by mutations in the gene encoding filaggrin. Filaggrin is a structural protein important for the formation of our skin’s barrier to the outside environment.

Up to half of all people with eczema carry a filaggrin gene. This new study reveals the mechanism, by which calcium and magnesium ions in hard water, surfactants, and filaggrin interact to damage the skin barrier unlocking new information about how exposure to hard water could, potentially, contribute to the development of eczema.” This week, September 16-24, marks National Eczema Week. Symptoms of eczema, also, called ‘atopic eczema’ or ‘atopic dermatitis’, include inflamed, dry skin and often secondary skin infections, which can affect any part of the body and every aspect of a person’s life, both physically and emotionally.

The new study, which Harvey Water Softeners was asked to fund, was published on September 16 in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology. The team of researchers examined whether removing the calcium and magnesium ions using an ion-exchange water softener could mitigate the negative effects of hard water on the skin. They found that using a water softener reduces the harmful effects of surfactants, potentially, decreasing the risk of developing eczema.

Managing Director of Harvey Water Softeners, Mr Martin Hurworth, said, “The link between hard water and eczema has been reported anecdotally for years, now, for the first time, there’s academic proof. We were pleased to provide industry support to this study in the form of hard water samples and the twin-cylinder water softeners, that provided the softened water that was needed.”

Co-senior Author of the study, Dr Carsten Flohr from the St John’s Institute of Dermatology at Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust and King’s College London, said, “One in five children and one in 12 adults in the UK suffer from eczema, costing the NHS well over £500 million annually. It is during the first few days and months of life, that our skin is most susceptible to damage and most at risk of developing eczema.

For that reason we are now embarking on a pilot trial to investigate whether installation of a domestic water softener around the time of birth can prevent skin barrier breakdown and eczema in those living in hard water areas.”

The Softened Water for Eczema Prevention:SOFTER trial will be undertaken by Dr Flohr and his team from King’s College London and the National Institute for Health Research:NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at Guy’s & St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust in collaboration with the University of Sheffield team and colleagues from the University of Dundee, the Centre of Evidence-Based Dermatology at Nottingham University, Imperial College London, the National Institute for Health, Bethesda, USA and Amsterdam Medical Centre.

The Paper: The Effect of Water Hardness on Surfactant Deposition Following Washing an Subsequent Skin Irritation in Atopic Dermatitis Patients and Healthy Controls is published in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology: DOI: 10.10.16/j.jid2017.08.037

A survey of 305 people with severe eczema performed by Allergy UK showed that more than 70 per cent reported feeling depressed, 73 per cent reported difficulties with self-esteem and 58 per cent said that it impacted their personal relationships. In addition, 73 per cent of respondents stated that their severe eczema impacted negatively on their social life, with six in 10 stating that it made them want to stay indoors.

The average number of sick days taken per person in the UK is 6.5 a year. Results from the Allergy UK survey suggested that 24 per cent of people with severe eczema miss more than six days a year due to their condition alone and 15 per cent reported taking more than 16 days off a year.

Harvey Water Softeners is the largest complete manufacturer of domestic water softeners in Europe. Founded in 1978 by Harvey Bowden and still family-owned, the Woking-based company has helped hundreds of thousands of UK households reap the benefits of soft water. The firm holds the Made in Britain marque, with its unique twin cylinder water softener made entirely in the UK. It was named Company of the Year at the Toast of Surrey Business Awards 2017.

The University of Sheffield: With almost 27,000 of the brightest students from over 140 countries, learning alongside over 1,200 of the best academics from across the globe, the University of Sheffield is one of the world’s leading universities. A member of the UK’s prestigious Russell Group of leading research-led institutions, Sheffield offers world-class teaching and research excellence across a wide range of disciplines. Unified by the power of discovery and understanding, staff and students at the university are committed to finding new ways to transform the world we live in.

Sheffield is the only university to feature in The Sunday Times 100 Best Not-For-Profit Organisations to Work For 2017 and was voted number one university in the UK for Student Satisfaction by Times Higher Education in 2014. In the last decade it has won four Queen’s Anniversary Prizes in recognition of the outstanding contribution to the United Kingdom’s intellectual, economic, cultural and social life. Sheffield has six Nobel Prize winners among former staff and students and its alumni go on to hold positions of great responsibility and influence all over the world, making significant contributions in their chosen fields. Global research partners and clients include Boeing, Rolls-Royce, Unilever, AstraZeneca, Glaxo SmithKline, Siemens and Airbus, as well as many UK and overseas government agencies and charitable foundations.

King’s College London: King's College London is one of the top 25 universities in the world and among the oldest in England. King's has more than 29,600 students, of whom nearly 11,700 are graduate students) from some 150 countries worldwide, and some 8,000 staff. King's has an outstanding reputation for world-class teaching and cutting-edge research. In the 2014 Research Excellence Framework (REF), eighty-four per cent of research at King’s was deemed ‘world-leading’ or ‘internationally excellent'. Since our foundation, King’s students and staff have dedicated themselves in the service of society. King’s will continue to focus on world-leading education, research and service, and will have an increasingly proactive role to play in a more interconnected, complex world. Visit our website to find out more about Vision 2029, King’s strategic vision for the next 12 years to 2029, which will be the 200th anniversary of the founding of the university.

NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at Guy’s and St Thomas’: The National Institute for Health Research:NIHR Biomedical Research Centre:BRC at Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust and King’s College London works to develop and deliver new medicines and diagnostics to patients, drive research and innovation into the NHS, and provide national systems leadership for maximum impact to patients. With our research activity organised into nine themes, each holding an individual Athena Swan Silver award highlighting our commitment to equality and diversity, and supported by our interdisciplinary, world leading infrastructure, we are poised to deliver the next step change for the health and wealth of our nation.
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Whatever Your Field of Work and Wherever in the World You are, Please, Make a Choice to Do All You Can to Seek and Demand the End of Death Penalty For It is Your Business What is Done in Your Name. The Law That Makes Humans Take Part in Taking Human Lives and That Permits and Kills Human Lives is No Law. It is the Rule of the Jungle Where Law Does Not Exist. The Humanion

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Targeted Antibiotic Use May Help Cure Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia

 

|| September 19: 2017: University of Glasgow News || ά. The antibiotic Tigecycline, when used in combination with current treatment, may, hold the key to eradicating chronic myeloid leukaemia:CML cells, according to new research. The University of Glasgow led study, published in Nature Medicine, demonstrates the effectiveness of combining Tigecycline with the drug Imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor:TKI and standard first-line treatment of patients with CML. Using cells, isolated from CML patients, researchers showed that treatment with Tigecycline, an antibiotic, used to treat bacterial infection, is effective in killing CML stem cells, when used in combination with Imatinib.

The study further shows that this new drug combination significantly delays relapse in pre-clinical animal models of human CML. The research teams now believe that these two drugs together offer an exciting new approach to eradicate leukaemic stem cells in CML patients, and potentially, enhance cure rates. Dr Vignir Helgason, Joint Lead Author of the study, who is based at the University of Glasgow, Wolfson Wohl Cancer Research Centre, said, “We were very excited to find that when we treated CML cells with both the antibiotic Tigecycline and the TKI drug Imatinib, CML stem cells were selectively killed.

We believe that our findings provide a strong basis for testing this novel therapeutic strategy in clinical trials in order to eliminate CML stem cells and provide cure for CML patients.” CML is a form of blood cancer, that turns normal blood stem cells into leukaemic stem cells or CML stem cells. These CML stem cells then produce large numbers of leukaemic cells, which, if left untreated, is fatal.

At present, CML patients are treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, otherwise known as TKIs, including, the drug imatinib. TKIs are effective at killing the majority of the leukaemic cells, but they do not kill the CML stem cells from which the disease arises.

As a result, TKIs alone, rarely, cure the disease but hold its advancement at bay. Therefore, most patients need to remain on TKIs for the rest of their lives to control the disease, although, with the risk of development of drug resistance. Additionally, the drugs are expensive and can cause serious side effects in some patients.

Professor Eyal Gottlieb, Head for the Cancer Metabolism Research Unit at the Cancer Research UK Beatson Institute, said, “Our work in this study demonstrates for the first time that CML stem cells are metabolically distinct from normal blood stem cells, and this, in turn, provides opportunities to selectively target them.”

Professor Karen Vousden, Cancer Research UK’s Chief Scientist, said, “It’s exciting to see that using an antibiotic alongside an existing treatment could be a way to keep this type of leukaemia at bay, and potentially, even, cure it.

If this approach is shown to be safe and effective in humans, too, it could offer a new option for patients who at the moment face long-term treatment with the possibility of relapse. This pioneering research was driven, in part, by Professor Holyoake, whose world leading work in CML will continue to shape research and save lives for years to come.”

World-leading CML Scientist, Professor Tessa Holyoake, who was the Director of the University of Glasgow Paul O’Gorman Leukaemia Research Centre, who passed away recently, was, also, a Co-author of this paper.

The Paper: Targeting mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation eradicates therapy-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells: Published in Nature Medicine. The research was funded by Cancer Research UK, The Medical Research Council, AstraZeneca, Scottish Government Chief Scientist Office, The Howat Foundation, Friends of the Paul O’Gorman Leukaemia Research Centre, Bloodwise, The Kay Kendall Leukaemia Fund, Lady Tata International Award and Leuka.
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Whatever Your Field of Work and Wherever in the World You are, Please, Make a Choice to Do All You Can to Seek and Demand the End of Death Penalty For It is Your Business What is Done in Your Name. The Law That Makes Humans Take Part in Taking Human Lives and That Permits and Kills Human Lives is No Law. It is the Rule of the Jungle Where Law Does Not Exist. The Humanion

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Is There Anything That You Can Not Do Aspirin: O You are Referring to the Tooth-Decay Regenerationability

 

|| September 14: 2017: Queen's University Belfast News || ά. Researchers at Queen’s University Belfast have discovered that aspirin could reverse the effects of tooth decay, resulting in a reduction in the need for fillings. Currently about seven million fillings are provided by the NHS each year in England alone. Tooth decay is the most common dental disease worldwide. Tooth decay imposes a huge financial burden on the NHS, particularly, in Northern Ireland, which has the highest prevalence in the UK.

Tooth decay leads to the destruction of the tooth structure, formation of cavities, and subsequent, inflammation of the tooth nerve causing toothache. Current treatment for tooth decay involves fillings, where dentists will restore the cavity or hole using a synthetic material, that doesn’t resemble the natural tooth structure, and may, need to be replaced many times during the life time of the tooth. Researchers at Queen’s University Belfast have discovered that aspirin could offer an alternative solution to restoring a tooth affected by decay.

The research findings, presented at the British Society for Oral and Dental Research Annual Conference on September 07, show that aspirin can enhance the function of stem cells found in the teeth, thus, helping self-repair by regenerating lost tooth structure.

The researchers combined genomics and bioinformatics to identify aspirin as a candidate drug with properties, that stimulate existing stem cells in the tooth to enhance the regeneration of the damaged tooth structure. Treatment of stem cells from teeth with low-dose aspirin, significantly, increased mineralisation and the expression of genes responsible for forming dentine, the hard tooth structure, that is usually damaged by decay.

This new discovery coupled with the known anti-inflammatory and pain relieving effects of aspirin could provide a unique solution for controlling tooth nerve inflammation and pain while promoting natural tooth repair.

The principal investigator Dr El Karim said, “There is huge potential to change our approach to one of the biggest dental challenges we face. Our initial research findings in the laboratory suggest that the use of aspirin, a drug already licensed for human use, could offer an immediate innovative solution enabling our teeth to repair themselves.

Our next step will be to develop an appropriate delivery system to test the drug efficacy in a clinical trial. This novel approach could not only increase the long-term survival of teeth but could, also, result in huge savings for the NHS and other healthcare systems worldwide.''
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Whatever Your Field of Work and Wherever in the World You are, Please, Make a Choice to Do All You Can to Seek and Demand the End of Death Penalty For It is Your Business What is Done in Your Name. The Law That Makes Humans Take Part in Taking Human Lives and That Permits and Kills Human Lives is No Law. It is the Rule of the Jungle Where Law Does Not Exist. The Humanion

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New Study Shows Mould in Bedrooms Causes Asthma in Young Children

Dr Caroline Shorter. Image: University of Otago

 

|| September 11: 2017: University of Otago News || ά. Researchers at the University of Otago, Wellington have shown that leaking and mouldy homes, may, lead to the development of a first attack of asthma in young children living in them. The major study, published in the international journal Indoor Air, was funded by the Health Research Council of New Zealand and carried out by researchers from the University's He Kainga Oranga, Housing and Health Research Programme.

The study investigated the homes of 150 children, who had visited their GPs for their first prescribed asthma medication and compared them to the homes of 300 matched children, who had never wheezed. “We have known for a long time that damp and mould will make asthma worse if you already have it but this is one of the first studies to show that mould, may be, actually, causing asthma to develop.” says the study’s Lead Author Dr Caroline Shorter from the Department of Medicine. “The study, also, found the more mould, the more cases of asthma.” she says.

“We found that mould and leaks were more likely to be found in the bedrooms and homes of children, who had just started wheezing compared to the children, who had never wheezed.” says Dr Shorter. “The amount of mould present in the bedroom made a difference: the more mould, the greater the risk that children would start wheezing.

This is, particularly, concerning because we know from surveys carried out by the Building Research Association of New Zealand and others, that around half of all New Zealanders have mould in their homes.” says Dr Shorter, who is a Research Fellow for He Kainga Oranga, Housing and Health Research.

“We, also, have very high rates of asthma in New Zealand with one in six adults and one in four children reported to suffer from the condition. Worldwide prevalence of indoor mould is estimated at 10-30 per cent of homes, depending on climate and asthma rates are one in 20.

“We urgently need to improve the quality of our children’s home environments.”.

Dr Shorter’s research shows that it is important for dry homes to have ‘the basics’ sorted, for example, leaks repaired, not having water pooling under the house, good insulation, working extractor fans, secure windows, that can be opened, ways of heating the entire home.

“We need to reduce moisture in our homes by using extractor fans, not drying clothes inside and opening windows often to improve ventilation, even for just 10 minutes a day. Even with these measures mould can still grow, so we, also, need to frequently check for mould and remove it when we see it, particularly, around windows, where condensation can increase mould growth.” she says.

“The next stage of our research is to try and look in more detail at what types of mould might be important and what additional prevention we, might, use to keep mould at a minimum.”
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Whatever Your Field of Work and Wherever in the World You are, Please, Make a Choice to Do All You Can to Seek and Demand the End of Death Penalty For It is Your Business What is Done in Your Name. The Law That Makes Humans Take Part in Taking Human Lives and That Permits and Kills Human Lives is No Law. It is the Rule of the Jungle Where Law Does Not Exist. The Humanion

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The Mother's Diary: About the Pregnancy Sickness and the Rest That Do Not Make Cosy Headlines or Rosy Images or Popular Videos or the Glossy Magazine Shoots: That is Why in Sanskrit the Word Mother is Related to the Word That Describes the Mother Earth: Dhorith-three for the Mother Earth and Maath-three for the Human Mother: Being and Becoming a Mother is a Necessity of Natural Biological Hard-Graft Work of Creation That Goes on for Nine Months Every Nano-Second of Every Day and Every Night of Every Week  of Every Month of the Nine Months  So That Humankind Can Continue to Exist: It is the Hardest of All Human Tasks and Therefore Not Easy Not Easy Not Easy

 

 

|| September 07: 2017 || ά. The Mother's Diary: About the Pregnancy Sickness and the Rest, That Do Not Make Cosy Headlines or Rosy Images or Popular Videos or the Glossy Magazine Shoots. That is Why, in Sanskrit, the Word Mother is Related to the Word, That Describes the Mother Earth: Dhorith-three for the Mother Earth and Maath-three for the Human Mother. Being and Becoming a Mother is a Necessity of Natural Biological Hard-Graft Work of Creation, That Goes on for Nine Months, Every Nano-Second of Every Day and Every Night, of Every Week, of Every Month of the Nine Months So That Humankind Can Continue to Exist. It is the Hardest of All Human Tasks, and Therefore, It is Not Easy, Not Easy, Not Easy. Here is a feature, presented by the materials from Emma's Diary. This, specifically, relates to Hyperemesis Gravidarum:HG, a severe condition and, it can be, life threatening, that some pregnant women, who suffer from it during pregnancies.

As news of the Duchess of Cambridge’s third pregnancy makes waves across the nation, we are reminded of the realities of morning sickness and its level of severity in some rare cases. The UK’s leading support resource for mothers to be Emma’s Diary, a resource that is produced, that gets verified by the Royal College of General PractitionersRCGP, has spoken to several mothers suffering from Hyperemesis Gravidarum, which affects one in 100 pregnant women, about their experiences, in a series of interviews. Here are three mothers, Ms Bella Drew, Ms Emma Eaton and Ms Gemma Edwards, speaking about their experiences. Around 80% of pregnant women suffer from morning sickness and despite its misleading name, and it is a dangerously misleading name, indeed and this is why The Humanion invites everyone concerned to start calling it as Pregnancy Sickness, instead of morning sickness. This is simply because this so called morning sickness doesn’t just happen in the morning but actually can and do happen during the entire day, but morning and evening can be the worst two windows for them to happen with more ferocity and frequency.

For some, like the Duchess of Cambridge or rather, simply, Ms Catherine Elizabeth Middleton and add, Windsor, extreme vomiting triggered by pregnancy can be severe, even, life threatening for those diagnosed with Hyperemesis Gravidarum:HG. In a bid to share their stories and raise awareness of this less common condition, these mothers have spoken out to warn others that if you believe you are suffering from extreme sickness, not to be fobbed off by suggestions that ‘it’s normal’, because it might not be the case. In pregnancy no mothers to be should treat the period as 'normal' but simply follow the 'simple and common instinct', if you do not feel something to be right you must seek help. It is happening inside your physiology and no one is better qualified than you, not even the professionals, as for making the first, call; so, simply follow your instinct and say: this is something, that I do not feel is 'normal' and there and than, seek help. Even if, you are wrong, there is no harm checking it up and be assured that everything was okay.

This is Bella Drew from Norwich in Norfolk: My baby is due in just over two weeks time. The moment I first found out I was expecting, my heart filled with excitement but that was soon to be diminished a week later. My experience of so-called 'morning sickness' started at around three weeks, I couldn’t keep anything down but I was told that was normal. As my suffering worsened I was put on medication, which didn’t really help, in my opinion. I had lost around two and a half stone, had sustained haemorrhages within my eyes from the straining while being sick.

I was being sick every 15 minutes throughout the day and night. I was bedridden, and eventually, I gave up. I couldn’t cope anymore and I was admitted to hospital diagnosed with HG. Despite all of the recent media attention the condition is still massively misunderstood. I wouldn't wish this debilitating illness on anyone and we really need to spread more awareness of the impact and symptoms of HG.”

This Emma Eaton from Gosport in Hampshire: I am pregnant and am currently suffering with HG; I was, also, hospitalised for two weeks in my last pregnancy, having almost died from starvation and dehydration. I have been in and out of hospital numerous times during my current pregnancy to have IV fluids and IV anti-emetics to help control the symptoms. I have to take two different types of tablets to help prevent me from being sick as I have been physically passing out and collapsing; also, knocking myself out in the process. I believe there needs to be much greater awareness of this life-threatening condition amongst pregnant women and those, who are planning to have children.”

This is Gemma Edwards from Walsall in West Midlands: I was diagnosed with HG with all three of my pregnancies, which has left me with some long term health problems. I am losing my teeth due to the impact of the stomach acid because I was vomiting anything from 20 to 50 times a day. I was, also, hospitalised for weeks on end with ketoneuria, ketones in my urine, a sign of dehydration and my veins kept collapsing, this condition made me very ill and my kidneys went into pre-failure meaning my life was at risk, and also, that of my children. This is a very serious condition and more awareness of the long term health risks it poses is much needed.”

Many women, who are diagnosed with HG say that they can’t keep anything down. They can, also, lose a lot of weight and fluids and sometimes have to be admitted to hospital for re-hydration treatment, as well as, require antiemetic medication to stop the vomiting. In terms of adverse effects on the baby, experts say that there are usually very few, unless weight gain continues to be poor during the second half of pregnancy; or indeed, the symptoms are more severe over a sustained period of time.

Sufferers of HG reported:

Extreme fatigue
Muscle weakness
Weight loss
Depressed mood
Tooth loss
Kidney failure
Severe dehydration with ketones present in urine
Disturbed salts in the blood
Eye haemorrhages
Long term health issues

Dr Shauna Fannin FRCGP, Chair of the Editorial Board at Emma’s Diary, said, “Every pregnancy is different and whilst pregnancy sickness is extremely common, Hyperemesis Gravidarum:HG only affects 01% of pregnant women and is a condition at the extreme end of the pregnancy sickness scale. HG sufferers will vomit frequently and can become dehydrated very quickly so it is very important to seek urgent medical advice.”

Ms Faye Mingo, mother of two and Marketing Director at Emma’s Diary, said, “It’s really brave for these women to speak out and share their experiences with others. What is apparent is a desire to build greater awareness on the topic of HG and to dispel any myths about what is considered to be ‘normal’, the message from most of the mums we spoke to is to trust your instincts and to keep pushing for medical support if you believe you or your pregnancy might be at risk.”

About Emma’s Diary: Emma’s Diary is the UK’s essential support resource for mothers to be and new parents. Providing best practice support and advice on pregnancy and early post-natal information, the popular site delivers responsible and reliable content that is verified by the Royal College of General Practitioners:RGCP. As well as gaining access to topical, useful resources, registered parents will, also, benefit from a competitive range of promotional offers, discounts, free gift packs and samples. ω.

 

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The European Society for Medical Oncology Publishes Its Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale's New Version on the Eve of Its Congress 2017 in Madrid Spain: September 08-12

 

 

|| September 03: 2017 || ά.

An updated version of the European Society for Medical Oncology Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale:ESMO-MCBS will enable users to evaluate single-arm studies for the first time. The ESMO-MCBS version 1.1 is set to be published online in the Annals of Oncology on September 05. The ESMO-MCBS version 1.0 was first published in May 2015 in Annals of Oncology. Since 2016 ESMO has been using the scale to grade all new medications or indications of anti-neoplastic treatments in solid tumours approved by the European Medicines Agency and presenting these scores in relevant ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines or as an ‘eUpdate’. The ESMO Congress 2017 is taking place on September 08-12 in Madrid, Spain, at the IFEMA, Feria de Madrid.

Lead Author Professor Nathan Cherny, Norman Levan Chair of Humanistic Medicine, Shaare Zedek Medical Centre, Jerusalem, Israel, said, “The ESMO-MCBS is an evolving project. We are constantly evaluating the validity and reasonableness of the scoring generated by the ESMO-MCBS, looking to identify and understand problems and seeking ways to improve the scale. Version 1.1 is the first major revision. It incorporates nine amendments, that address shortcomings, identified in version 1.0 and introduces a new scale for single-arm studies. So, while the first version only scored comparative studies, the updated tool will enable users to evaluate single-arm studies in orphan diseases and for diseases with high unmet need.”

Field testing and peer review of version 1.1 of the ESMO-MCBS was conducted in collaboration with the ESMO Faculty and Guidelines Committee, who were critical in the development of version 1.0. Professor Cherny, “The ESMO-MCBS has shown itself to be a valued tool for evaluating the magnitude of benefit from clinical studies. Evolving experience, feedback and discussion with users and published critiques have informed the revised version and we invite users of version 1.1 to provide feedback to assist us in the process of ongoing development and refinement.”

Professir Fortunato Ciardiello, ESMO President, said, “The ESMO-MCBS was designed as a dynamic tool, that would be revised based on expanding needs and any shortcomings that were identified. The new version, in particular, the ability to score single-arm studies in orphan diseases and for diseases with high unmet need, will go even further in promoting ESMO’s mission to deliver sustainable cancer care.”

Professor Elisabeth de Vries, Chair of the ESMO Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale Working Group, said, ''The recent survey on the awareness and utilisation of the ESMO-MCBS has shown us that, as well as, being used to derive the magnitude of clinical benefit of medicines it is, also, being used as an educational tool to train fellows in the interpretation of data from clinical trials and in journal club discussions regarding the efficacy of new treatments.”

To find out more, attend the following sessions at the ESMO 2017 Congress, September 08-12 in Madrid, Spain, at the IFEMA, Feria de Madrid. Special Session on cost, value and assessment tools of therapies in modern oncology, Sunday, September 10, 16:30 to 18:00, CEST, in the Alicante Auditorium.

About the European Society for Medical Oncology:ESMO: ESMO is the leading professional organisation for medical oncology. With 16,000 members representing oncology professionals from over 130 countries worldwide. ESMO is the society of reference for oncology education and information. We are committed to supporting our members to develop and advance in a fast-evolving professional environment.

About Annals of Oncology: Annals of Oncology is a monthly journal, published on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology:ESMO by Oxford Journals. Professor Jean-Charles Soria is Editor-in-Chief. ω.

 

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Low Birth Weight and Future Heart Problems: Early Clues in the Newborn Period

 

 

|| September 03: 2017: Monash University News || ά.

A Monash University led study has shown early clues to identifying which low-weight new born babies are at risk of developing future heart problems, opening the way to better monitoring and treatment. Up to one in ten babies are born small for their time in pregnancy. whether premature or full term. It is estimated there are approximately 4,000 such births in Australia annually, with foetal growth restriction:FGR being linked to a higher risk of stroke, hypertension, diabetes and death due to heart disease during adulthood, 55-70 years of age.

This new landmark study shows that by using high resolution ultrasound of the heart and the blood vessels, early sub-clinical indicators can be noted as early as two weeks post birth in babies born with FGR. Published in the Journal of Paediatrics along with a review in the Journal of Perinatology, the study was led by Monash University’s Professor Sehgal showed that babies born preterm and at a low birth weight, even after adjusting for the effects of prematurity, had significantly higher blood pressure, though, still within overall normal range, compared to those born preterm but well grown.

Comparing 20 preterm, FGR infants with 20 preterm, well grown infants, the research team found thickened, globular hearts, which functionally had reduced contractility and ability to relax.

Additionally, their blood vessels appeared thicker, stiffer and less compliant. These babies will be reviewed again at the end of the year, when they are approaching their second birthdays. There is pre-existing information, that these findings tend to persist well into adolescence, and, may, well be the most important link between low birth weight and adult onset cardiovascular ailments.

Professor Sehgal said that this high risk population should be followed closely from in utero to at least adolescence using ultrasound to pick early clues before clinical disease sets in. “Babies born with FGR have a significantly increased incidence of chronic disease and preliminary information suggests a healthy life style, exercise and a diet rich in fish oil, may be, beneficial.” he said. A study assessing the safety and the impact of actual supplementation with fish oil is sorely needed, and is being planned.

According to Professor Sehgal, these results call for an overhaul of the way doctors and maternal and child nurses review the health of babies. “If the history shows they suffered from FGR then these babies should be followed up closely with early testing for chronic disease.

Given these ailments fly under the radar for a long period of time, early detection and then early intervention could provide a better life for these children moving into adult hood and would provide enormous savings for a health system currently burdened by chronic disease,”

A study done by the Spanish collaborators noted improvements in cardiac and vascular measures in FGR infants, who were exclusively breast fed. Additionally, a diet rich in omega-three fatty acids in the early years has, also, been noted to bring significant improvements. ω.

 

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Meningococcal Disease: Now There's Real Hope in the LAMP: Beat It with the Test of Time

 

 

|| September 01: 2017: Queen's University Belfast News || ά.

Meningitis and Meningococcal septicaemia:Meningococcal Disease, is caused by a deadly bacteria, that can kill in hours. Meningococcal Disease is notoriously difficult to diagnose as initial symptoms mimic those of common colds. Researchers at Queen’s University and the Belfast Trust are working to improve testing to prevent unnecessary deaths while, at the same time, reducing the number of children treated unnecessarily ‘just in case.’ Time is of the essence, when it comes to treating meningitis, making it vital to treat it as early as possible. Most people make a good recovery if treated early enough but without treatment, many will die.

Meningococcal Disease can be difficult to detect, with many patients only identified as infected, when a visible rash develops, which is often too late. Furthermore, traditional laboratory diagnostic tests are slow taking up to 48 hours to return results. It is estimated that 50% of patients, who turn out to have Meningococcal Disease, have been falsely reassured in the previous 12-24 hours by their doctor and are sent home given the all-clear, though, they, may, in fact, be infected. For those patients, who are sent to hospital, they will be offered treatment before doctors can officially diagnose whether they are infected.

Because the early stages of Meningococcal Disease are notoriously difficult to diagnose, doctors in the UK tend to err on the side of caution, resulting in the majority of suspected cases receiving precautionary treatment. Professor Mike Shields, Clinical Professor at Queen’s University Belfast and Consultant Paediatrician at the Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children, said, “If we suspect a child, may, have meningococcal septicaemia, we will administer antibiotic treatment straight away. If we wait a few days for the test results to confirm, it, may be, too late and we risk losing the child.”

Treating potential cases with antibiotics for 48 hours is the safest approach in treating suspected cases until new, fast diagnoses are made available. However, this approach means that for every child with Meningococcal Disease, four children are being over treated. Or treated when the treatment was unnecessary.

This study found that out of the 105 babies and children treated for suspected Meningococcal Septicaemia, only one third were later found to be infected, meaning two thirds received treatment unnecessarily.  The NHS gold standard test, blood cultures, for detecting Meningococcal Disease can take up to 48 hours for results to come back.

Researchers at Queen’s University in partnership with the Belfast Trust have developed a diagnostic test, known as, Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification:LAMP, which provides results within an hour. Throughout the two year study, researchers tested patients, using both the standard NHS and the LAMP tests. The LAMP test proved to be as efficient as the standard test in returning accurate diagnosis, though, in a fraction of the time. Hibergene Diagnostics has now developed the LAMP test for commercial use.

Dr James Mc Kenna, the Belfast Care and Social Trust and lead Researcher in developing the LAMP test, said, “The LAMP test enables doctors to efficiently diagnose Meningococcal Septicaemia within an hour. The LAMP diagnosis could, significantly, reduce the number of patients taking medication unnecessarily, as well as, preventing needless anxiety to patients and their families.

The test saves lives, as well as, saving precious time for hospital staff so the next stage is that this test can be made readily available to clinicians. When designing the LAMP diagnosis, we focused on producing a test, that would be easy to use for clinicians in a hospital setting, taking away from what can be a timely cost of tests being performed by trained lab technicians.”

Although, research has proven the LAMP test’s accuracy, further research is required to demonstrate the practicality of testing being undertaken by a clinician in a hospital environment. Dr Tom Waterfield is leading a new research study at Queen’s University in collaboration with the Paediatric Emergency Research UK and Ireland:PERUKI network to assess the practicality of this test being used in a hospital setting.

Dr Waterfield explains, “We know that scientifically the test is effective but we now need the evidence base to confirm whether it is feasible for clinicians to carry out this test as part of their role before an informed decision can be taken. As part of this study, we will evaluate the feasibility of clinicians using the LAMP test in a hospital setting by assessing any potential barriers and ease of use.”

The two year research study, launching in September will involve clinicians in the Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children, using the Hibergene LAMP test in the emergency department to test suspected cases of meningitis, getting results within the hour. If rolled out across the UK, the test could not only prevent children being admitted for treatment for Meningococcal Disease unnecessarily, but it could, also, stop children being wrongly sent home, potentially, saving dozens of lives every year.

The work is funded by the Health and Social Care Research and Development Division, Public Health Agency and by the Royal College of Emergency Medicine. ω.

 

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Missed Nursing Care Due to Low Nurse Staffing Increases Patient Mortality

 

 

 

|| August 29: 2017: University of Southampton News || ά. Failure to deliver complete nursing care explains why hospitals with lower registered

nursing:RN staff levels have a higher risk of patient death, a new University of Southampton study has shown. Dr Jane Ball, Principal Research Fellow at the University of Southampton, who led the study, says that the results published in the International Journal of Nursing Studies show that care left undone due to lack of time is the 'missing link' in understanding variation in mortality rates in hospitals. When RN staffing is lower, necessary care is more likely to be missed.

Each 10 per cent increase in the amount of care left undone was associated with a 16 per cent increase in the likelihood of a patient dying, following common surgery, the study shows. The findings come from further investigation of the major RN4CAST study of nurse staffing at hospitals in nine European countries, including, 31 NHS acute trusts in England. Previous analysis of the survey showed that lower nurse staffing levels were associated with higher mortality. Missed nursing care was measured through a nurse survey and included activities, such as, patient surveillance, administering medicine on time, adequate documentation, comforting patients and pain management.

“For years we have known that there is a relationship between nurse staffing levels and hospital variation in mortality rates but we have not had a good explanation as to how or why.” Dr Ball comments. “These results give the clearest indication yet that RN staffing levels are not just associated with patient mortality, but that the relationship, may be, causal.

If there are not enough registered nurses on hospital wards, necessary care is left undone and people’s lives are put at risk.” added Dr Ball. The analysis, also, looked at nurse qualification and confirmed that hospitals with higher numbers of registered nurses trained at degree level have lower risk of patient mortality.

Professor Peter Griffiths, Chair of Health Services Research at the University of Southampton, added, “This study reinforces the importance of registered nurses, who are trained to a degree level. It is more evidence, that shows that you cannot substitute fully qualified RNs with less qualified staff, without taking a risk with patient safety. It is the number of RNs on duty, that is key to ensuring complete care and minimising the risk of patients dying.”

Co-author Mr Luk Bruyneel, KU Leuven in Belgium, said, “These findings have implications for healthcare managers and policymakers. Monitoring missed care, may, offer a more responsive and sensitive early-warning system for hospitals to detect problems before patients die. More work needs to be done worldwide to ensure we utilise this data for the benefit of patients.”

The RN4CAST study assessed how organisational features of hospital care impact on nurse recruitment, nurse retention and patient outcomes. The study was funded by the European Union, and it, also, received funding from National Institutes of Health, Aiken. The research presented is a collaboration among the University of Southampton, King’s College London, University of Pennsylvania, KU Leuven Institute for Healthcare Policy and Karolinska Institutet. The data was drawn from nine studies conducted in European countries, including, Belgium, England, Finland, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland and included data from 31 NHS acute trusts in England. ω. 

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Killing Bacteria by Hacking Plastics with Silver Nano-Particles and Electricity

 

Image: Laurent Mekul

 

 

|| August 25: 2017: Karolinska Intitutet News || ά. Researchers at the Swedish Medical Nanoscience Centre at Karolinska Institutet have developed an innovative way of hacking conducting plastics so as to prevent bacterial growth using silver nano-particles and a small electrical current. The method, which could prove to be useful in preventing bacterial infections in hospitals, is presented in the scientific journal Advanced Healthcare Materials. Hospital wards are full of plastic surfaces, plastic tubes and plastic devices, each one, potentially, harbouring dangerous microbes.

Bacteria are capable of surviving for a long time on plastic surfaces, from which they can spread to patients and cause infections. While both large electrical currents and high silver concentrations are known to kill bacteria, they, also, pose a risk to humans, which is why their use in hospitals is limited. New research, led by Professor Agneta Richter-Dahlfors at Karolinska Institutet’s Department of Neuroscience shows that it is not necessary to use dangerous concentrations of silver or large currents in order to kill bacteria, if these are used in combination.

“By targeting the bacteria on several fronts at the same time, the effect of different small attacks becomes larger than when each factor is acting on its own.” explains Professor Agneta Richter-Dahlfors. The research team focussed on the notorious hospital pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. They found that applying tiny electrical currents to a conducting plastic surface had no effect on bacterial growth.

On a similar surface exposing an attached layer of silver nano-particles, bacterial growth was reduced. However, application of a tiny electrical current to the latter surface enhanced the effect of attached silver nano-particles and the bacteria were completely destroyed.

“It’s a phenomenon, known as, the bioelectric effect, whereby electrical fields weaken bacterial cells against external attacks.”, says PhD student Mr Salvador Gomez-Carretero at Karolinska Institutet's Department of Neuroscience. “We use electrical signals to increase the antimicrobial activity of the silver nano-particles.

This reduces the amount of silver needed, which is beneficial for both the patient and the environment.” In the future, the researchers hope that this technology will help to keep surfaces in hospitals and other settings requiring high hygienic standards free from bacteria, that can cause life-threatening infections.

“It has not yet been tested in the clinic, but we believe this technology could be a good approach to limiting the spread of infectious bacteria and the incidence of hospital-acquired infections.'' says Professor Richter-Dahlfors.

The study was financed by the Swedish Research Council, Vinnova, Carl Bennet AB and the Swedish Medical Nanoscience Centre. ω.

The Paper: Electroenhanced Antimicrobial Coating Based on Conjugated Polymers with Covalently Coupled Silver Nanoparticles Prevents Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation: Salvador Gomez-Carretero, Rolf Nybom and Agneta Richter-Dahlfors.  Advanced Healthcare Materials, online August 14, 2017. doi: 10.1002/adhm.201700435

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Experimental Drug Trial Seeks to Improve Treatment for Lymphoma: Patients Over 16 are Being Recruited Now for the Trial

 

 

|| August 20: 2017: University of Southampton News || ά. Patients with a common type of fast-growing cancer are being given fresh hope in a new clinical trial. Scientists at the University of Southampton are, for the first time, to trial a new experimental drug, in combination with immunochemotherapy, in certain patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma:DLBCL. DLBCL is the most common type of fast-growing non-Hodgkin lymphoma. For many people, the standard treatment, called, R-CHOP, uses a combination of an immunotherapy, called, Rituximab and four chemotherapy drugs to find and destroy lymphoma cells. But sometimes DLBCL does not go away or comes back after a period of remission.

Researchers at the University want to find out whether a new protein inhibitor, called, Acalabrutinib improves patient response to standard treatments. Acalabrutinib is being developed by Acerta Pharma, a member of the AstraZeneca group. The ACCEPT trial, which has been launched at seven centres across the country and is being funded by Acerta Pharma, will be managed by the Southampton Clinical Trials Unit, and will, for the first time, combine acalabrutinib with R-CHOP. The first phase of the trial will help determine a safe and tolerable dose of the drug. Patients will receive multiple low doses of acalabrutinib, while samples of blood and other fluids, collected at various time points, are analysed for information on how the body processes the drug in combination with R-CHOP.

The subsequent phase will evaluate whether this treatment combination is effective at treating DLBCL and preventing its return. Researchers on this trial are accepting patients, aged 16 years and above, with previously untreated CD20 positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, requiring a full course of chemotherapy.

Dr Andrew Davies, Lead Rsearcher on the trial and Associate Professor and Consultant in Medical Oncology at the University of Southampton, said, “For some lymphoma patients standard treatments are not effective, so we urgently need trials like this to help more people survive their disease.

Results from previous trials, that use acalabrutinib to fight other blood cancers, have been very promising. This new and unique drug combination will attack the cancer from two sides. Not only will it mark the cancer cells so the immune system can find them and kill them, but it will, also, prevent the activity of key proteins, that play an important role in the spread and survival of malignant B cells. We believe this new combination will benefit patients in addition to standard treatment.”

ACCEPT is the first clinical trial to be run as part of the Precision Medicine for Aggressive Lymphoma Consortium:PMAL. Gene expression data gathered as part of this trial will be used by PMAL to improve diagnosis and treatment for lymphoma. It will contribute to a sophisticated database, which could one day match patients to targeted therapies based on genetic profiling.

Professor Peter Johnson, Director of the Southampton Cancer Research UK Centre, said, “Our research into the molecular changes, that make lymphomas grow, has given us important new leads on how we might treat them more effectively.

This trial is exciting because it uses a new targeted cancer drug to switch off key signals in lymphoma cells, and at the same time, we will be able to collect information about whether this is a good approach for more patients in the future.”
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Whatever Your Field of Work and Wherever in the World You are, Please, Make a Choice to Do All You Can to Seek and Demand the End of Death Penalty For It is Your Business What is Done in Your Name. The Law That Makes Humans Take Part in Taking Human Lives and That Permits and Kills Human Lives is No Law. It is the Rule of the Jungle Where Law Does Not Exist. The Humanion

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Experiences of Stroke Survivors with Visual Impairments Examined

 

 

|| August 18: 2017: University of Liverpool News || ά. A new study, published in Wiley Brain and Behaviour, identifies simple measures, that could substantially improve the quality of life of stroke survivors with visual impairments. About two thirds of stroke survivors have visual impairment, which typically relates to impaired central or peripheral vision, eye movement abnormalities or visual perceptual defects. Symptoms can include blurred or altered vision, double or jumbled vision, loss of visual field, reading difficulty, inability to recognise familiar objects or people and glare. Post stroke visual impairment:PSVI is currently an under researched area.

In order to gain the views and experiences on the impact of these impairments on stroke survivors Dr Fiona Rowe, from the University’s Department of Health Services Research, interviewed 35 post stroke survivors, who had lived with PSVI for more than one year. Of the 35 people interviewed 16 were women and 19 were men; all aged between 20 and 75 at the time of their stroke. Their interviews were transcribed and researchers broke their answers down into five different areas: Formal care, Symptoms and self, Adaptations, Daily life and Information.

Where visual problems existed, they were often not immediately recognised as part of the stroke syndrome and attributed to other causes, such as, migraine. Dr Fiona Rowe, said, “Strokes can be devastating and many stroke survivors, who are recovering from one of the most awful experiences of their lives face the additional challenge of visual impairment.

The results of our study showed that many participants did not receive early vision assessment or treatment for their visual problems. Visual problems included loss of peripheral vision, double vision and perceptual problems, difficulties interpreting what they could see. Impact of visual problems included loss in confidence, being a burden to others, increased collisions:accidents and fear of falling.

Stroke survivors, themselves, made many self-identified adaptations to compensate for visual problems: magnifiers, large print, increased lighting, use of white sticks. There was a consistent lack of support and provision of information about visual problems from clinical services.

PSVI causes considerable impact to daily life, which could be substantially improved by simple measures, including, early formal visual screening and assessment, management and advice on adaptive strategies and self-management options. Improved education about PSVI for the public and clinicians could further help earlier diagnosis of visual impairments.”
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The Paper: Stroke survivors’ views and experiences on impact of visual impairment: DOI: 10.1002/brb3.778

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Interval Workouts for Older Women May Improve Health of Blood Vessels

 

|| August 11: 2017: University of Leeds News || ά. Short bouts of interval exercise, may be, most beneficial for older women at increased risk of heart-related illness, according to new University of Leeds research. The study of 15 women, published in the BMJ Open Sport and Exercise Medicine Journal, looked into the effects of both continuous and interval exercise on important angiogenic cells in the body, which support blood vessel growth.

It focused on post-menopausal women because the risk of cardiovascular disease increases as oestrogen levels drop, which lead to the body’s natural repair mechanisms becoming less sensitive. The drop in hormones, coupled with rising age, also, reduces the number of angiogenic cells, so finding ways to encourage the efficient operation of those remaining is key to giving women a chance of good heart and blood vessel health.

The research found while neither continuous or interval exercise increased the number of angiogenic cells in the blood, interval exercise encouraged greater function of those cells already in circulation and stimulated their ability to form colonies, which can improve blood vessel growth and repair.

The findings showed that one session of interval exercise was more effective than 30 minutes of moderate intensity continuous exercise, one of the key Government-recommended guidelines, when it comes to increasing angiogenic cell activity in post-menopausal women.

Exercise has long been recommended for postmenopausal women, but this is the first study to link certain types of exercise to the activities of angiogenic cells. It measured the response of the women in a trial to produce the current findings. The research group’s report said that further studies should be an imperative and more research was required to understand exactly how the process operates.

Dr Karen Birch, from the University of Leeds’ Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Centre, who led the research project, said, “We believe the body’s greater exertion at the higher work rates during interval exercise stimulates the cells in circulation, so when they gather they become a powerful force in the body’s ability to decrease the risk of vascular disease.

This is the first study to link interval type exercise and angiogenic cell activity, but our findings suggest health professionals could advise postmenopausal women to try exercise in short bursts of activity followed by periods of rest, if they need to concentrate on improving their heart and blood vessels. We would like to see greater use of individualised exercise prescriptions for women needing to improve this area of their health.

We have to be realistic that not all older women are likely to launch into a high-intensity interval exercise regime. Our advice to women is try to adapt existing ways of exercising to become more intense, but still at a level they feel comfortable with. Remember intervals, can be, short bursts of fast walking or short bursts of a jog. In other words, a bit harder than a person usually undertakes.”

Previous research has shown that low levels of angiogenic cells and a reduction in their function has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A drop in their ability to form colonies has been associated with increased risk of developing coronary artery disease.

The research team includes academics from Thompson Rivers University, Canada and the University of Huddersfield and was funded by the British Heart Foundation.

The Paper: Interval exercise increases angiogenic cell function in postmenopausal women is published in BMJ Open Sport and Exercise Medicine journal.
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Babies Learn From Day One: New Study Finds

 

|| August 07: 2017: University of Dundee News || ά. Babies have the capacity to learn from social experiences in their first days of life, a new study from Psychology researchers at the University of Dundee has shown. The study, which involved more than 80 infants, demonstrated that they showed signs of learning from repeated social interactions, even in their first two days. Researchers administered the `still face procedure’, a well-established technique, in which someone interacting with the child, essentially, freezes in the middle of the conversation and ignores them for a few minutes.

The babies became distressed, something that, also, happens in older infants, but when the process was repeated a day later, they showed clear signs of modifying their behaviour, as if learning from the previous experience. “This research shows not only the impressive communicative sensitivity of the newborn infant, but also, that they have the ability to learn about social interactions from the earliest stage and to repair interactional errors.” said Dr Emese Nagy, Reader in Psychology in the School of Social Sciences at the University of Dundee.

“Such errors are a part of every normal communication, even with the best parent, so this ability of the newborn baby is very important. This, also, means that the newborn baby is not a passive recipient and reflexive respondent during communication but actively and proactively regulates its own social environment and contributes to the success of the interaction.”

Dr Nagy and her colleagues at Dundee and the University of Szeged in Hungary studied 84 newborn babies in Szeged. The babies were each given the two tests in the days immediately following their birth and their responses to the still face procedure were filmed and analysed frame-by-frame.

“A consistent response across the tests showed that babies are clearly distressed by the still-faced adult and their behaviour was not random.” continued Dr Nagy. “We, also, see the babies giving repeated, very quick glances to the other person, as if they are checking whether they have re-engaged in the conversation. By the second time, they re-engage with the adult sooner.

We are not entirely sure how this happens but they are showing clear signs of learning from experience, even at this very early stage in life.” Dr Nagy and colleagues have years of experience of research with infant children and have established one of the largest databases of perinatal behaviour in the world.
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The Paper: The research has been published in the journal PLOS ONE.

Whatever Your Field of Work and Wherever in the World You are, Please, Make a Choice to Do All You Can to Seek and Demand the End of Death Penalty For It is Your Business What is Done in Your Name. The Law That Makes Humans Take Part in Taking Human Lives and That Permits and Kills Human Lives is No Law. It is the Rule of the Jungle Where Law Does Not Exist. The Humanion

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Climate Change Risk to Europe’s Most Dangerous Pathogens Shown

Image: University of Liverpool

 

|| August 06: 2017: University of Liverpool News || ά. The impact of climate change on the emergence and spread of infectious diseases could be greater than previously thought, according to new research by the University’s Institute of Infection and Global Health. The study, published in Scientific Reports, is the first large-scale assessment of how climate affects bacteria, viruses or other microorganisms and parasites, pathogens, that can cause disease in humans or animals in Europe. The results will help policy makers prioritise the surveillance for pathogens, that may, respond to climate change and, in turn, contribute to strengthening climate change resilience for infectious diseases.

There is growing evidence that climate change is altering the distribution of some diseases, in some cases, causing epidemics or making diseases spread within their natural range, for example, Zika virus in South America or bluetongue and Schmallenberg disease in livestock in Europe. Dr Marie McIntyre, who led the project, explained, “Although, there is a well-established link between climate change and infectious disease, we did not previously understand how big the effects will be and which diseases will be most affected. Climate sensitivity of pathogens is a key indicator, that diseases, might, respond to climate change, so assessing which pathogens are most climate-sensitive and their characteristics, is vital information if we are to prepare for the future.”

The researchers carried out a systematic review of published literature on one hundred human and one hundred domestic animal pathogens present in Europe, that have the largest impact on health.

Nearly two-thirds of the pathogens examined were found to be sensitive to climate and two-thirds of these have more than one climate driver, meaning that the impact of climate change upon them will likely be multifaceted and complex.

Diseases spread by insects and ticks, vector-borne diseases, were found to be the most climate sensitive, followed by those transmitted in soil, water and food. The diseases with the largest number of different climate drivers were Vibrio cholerae, cause of cholera, Fasciola hepatica, cause of liver fluke, Bacillus anthracis, cause of anthrax and Borrelia burgdorferi, cause of tickborne Lyme disease.

Dr Marie McIntyre, said, “Currently, most models examining climate effects only consider a single or at most two climate drivers, so our results suggest that this should change, if we really want to understand future impacts of climate change on health.”

Zoonotic pathogens, those, that spread from animals to humans, were also, found to be more climate sensitive than those, that affect only humans or only animals. As 75% of emerging diseases are zoonotic, emerging diseases, may be, particularly, likely to be impacted by climate change. However, the researchers stress that their response to climate change will, also, be dependent on the impacts of other drivers, such as, changes to travel and trade, land-use, deforestation, new control measures and the development of antimicrobial resistance.

The top 100 human and animal list was compiled using the Enhanced Infectious Disease Database:EID2, a comprehensive and open-access ‘Big Data’ record of over 60 million scientific papers, electronic sources and textbooks associated with infectious diseases, that was developed in Liverpool.

The study received funding support from the Natural Environment Research Council and the Principal Investigator, Professor Matthew Baylis, received funding from The Leverhulme Trust. ω.

The Paper: Systematic Assessment of the Climate Sensitivity of Important Human and Domestic Animals Pathogens in Europe: DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-06948-9