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|| Year Gamma: London: Friday: July 13: 2018 ||
First Published: September 24: 2015
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Geology

Geology Arkive Year Beta
   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Teachers Learning About Lunar Geology

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kristy Mar, a middle school teacher at J.H. Hull Middle School in Torrance, California, peers through microscope to examine moon rocks encapsulated in clear Lucite. Image: NASA Photo:Ken Ulbrich. Posted: December 09, 2015

Summanen: I Am 191st on Earth

 

 

|| July 01: 2018: University of Helsinki News: Minna Meriläinen-Tenhu Writing || ά. A Finnish-Estonian scientific co-operation by Geological Survey of Finland, University of Tartu and University of Helsinki has led to a discovery of ancient meteorite impact crater in Central Finland. The crater has a diameter of 02.6 km and it is covered by the Lake Summasjärvi in Summanen and about nine kilometre south-east of the nearest city, Saarijärvi and 275 km north of Helsinki.

The age of the impact event and the type of the meteorite causing the crater, are still unknown. The discovery is based on earlier geo-physical studies of the area by Geological Survey of Finland. As a consequence of the field trip conducted by the Finnish-Estonian research team in 2017, proofs of an ancient asteroidal shock were obtained. The Summanen geo-physical feature was first identified in the early 2000’s by Mr Jouko Vanne, a Ggeologist at the Geological Survey of Finland.

The observation was based on low altitude aero-electromagnetic data, that showed circular electro-magnetic apparent resistivity anomaly associated with Lake Summanen. The meteorite impact theory got a further support in summer of 2017, when the Finnish-Estonian team found inevitable evidences of traces of a meteorite hit.

In particular, shatter cones, fractured and brecciated rocks were discovered in Summanen area. The microscope studies of thin sections of shocked rocks prove the meteorite impact interpretation and show huge shock pressures suffered by the local basement rocks. In time of the crater formation, the diameter has been larger compared to the present 02.6 km since the erosion by geological processes, augmented by glaciations, have diminished the original crater size.

Summanen is 191st confirmed meteorite impact structure on the surface of planet Earth. The great majority is found on continental areas with only a few oceanic impacts. Although, in global perspective the Summanen belongs to the group of small craters, it, together with the eleven previously proven impact structures in Finland, places Finland into one of the leading countries to find impact structures.

The largest impact structure in Finland, the Keurusselkä structure locating, also, in Central Finland, has a diameter of >30 km with an age of about 1,100 million years. The Summanen explosion has been much smaller but, nevertheless, produced a big damage in the environment.

 

The Paper: ‘Summanen, a new meteorite impact structure in Central Finland: Jüri Plado, Satu Hietala, Timmu Kreitsmann, Jouni Lerssi, Jari Nenonen and Lauri J. Pesonen: Published in the journal Meteoritics and Planetary Science by

Contact: Lauri J. Pesonen, University of Helsinki: Professor Emeritus: Tele: +358 50 383 5574: email: lauri.pesonen at helsinki.fi

Satu Hietala: Geological Survey of Finland: Geologist: Tele: +358 50 348 6194: email: satu.hietala at gtk.fi

Jüri Plado: University of Tartu: Senior Researcher: Tele: +372 5554 4535: email: juri.plado at ut.ee

Minna Meriläinen-Tenhu: Tele: +358 50 415 0316: email: minna.merilainen at helsinki.fi

Caption: Summasjärvi, Summanen: Image: Satu Hietala:::ω.

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Don't Kick-Em Jenny: This is Their Lucky Break

 

 

|| March 15: 2018: University of Liverpool News || An international team of researchers got a rare opportunity to study an underwater volcano in the Caribbean, when it erupted while they were surveying the area. The research, published in the journal Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, provides new insight into the little-studied world of underwater volcanoes. It investigated a volcano named Kick-‘em-Jenny, which is thought to be named after the turbulent waters nearby.

The research team from the University of Liverpool, Imperial College London and University of Southampton, in collaboration with the University of the West Indies Seismic Research Centre, were collecting ocean-bottom seismometers aboard the NERC research ship R.R.S. James Cook as part of a larger experiment, when they were alerted to the volcano erupting. Direct observation of submarine eruptions are very rare but having the ship nearby allowed them to get to the volcano in time to record the immediate aftermath of the eruption.

Using ship-based imaging technology, the researchers were was able to survey the volcano, observing gas coming from the central cone. The data was, then, combined with previous surveys going back more than 30 years to show the long-term pattern of activity. Kick-‘em-Jenny is one of the Caribbean’s most active volcanoes. It sits eight kilometres off the northern coast of the island of Grenada and was first discovered in 1939, when a 300-metre column of ash and dust was spotted rising from the ocean.

However, volcanic activity at
Kick-‘em-Jenny is, usually, detected by accompanying seismic activity picked up on land-based seismometers. These recordings show that the volcano is active on a decadal timescale.

Lead Author PhD student Mr Robert Allen, from Imperial College, said, “There are surveys of the Kick-‘em-Jenny area going back 30 years but our survey in April 2017 is unique in that it immediately followed an eruption. This gave us unprecedented data on what this volcanic activity, actually, looks like, rather than relying on interpreting seismic signals.”

The team, which included Liverpool’s Professor Andreas Rietbrock, found that the volcano has frequent cycles of lava ‘dome’ growth followed by collapse through landslides. Similar cycles have been recently witnessed on the nearby volcanic island of Montserrat.

SRC Director Professor Richard Robertson said, “This study has confirmed very useful recent insights on the activity and evolution of Kick-‘em-Jenny volcano. For us, the agency with responsibility for monitoring this volcano, the results of this collaborative research project enable us to better quantify our existing model of this volcano and help in developing strategies for managing future eruptions.”

Any volcano on land, which was as lively
Kick-‘em-Jenny would be constantly monitored by satellites and an array of local instruments looking for the slightest change in behaviour, that could precede a major volcanic eruption. Under the ocean this job is much more difficult, as the electromagnetic energy emitted by satellites can not penetrate the sea surface and instruments are much more difficult to set up on the volcano itself. Scientists, therefore, know comparatively little about the growth and long-term behaviour of a fully submerged volcanic cone like Kick-‘em-Jenny.

The most famous submarine volcanoes are those, that lead to the formation of new islands, such as, the eruption of Surtsey in Iceland in the 1960s. However, rather than a growing cone, the surveys show significant mass loss from
Kick-‘em-Jenny due to frequent landslides in recent decades. Comparison with recent studies elsewhere has shown that similar, frequent, small volume landslides, may be, a fundamental mechanism in the long-term evolution of active submarine volcanoes.

The research was by funded by the Natural Environment Research Council:NERC as part of the VoiLA research project. This project, a multidisciplinary collaboration between UK universities and the University of the West Indies, aims to discover the role, that volatile recycling plays in the growth of the Lesser Antilles island arc.
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The Paper: The research paper, 30 Years in the Life of an Active Submarine Volcano: A Time-Lapse Bathymetry Study of the Kick-‘em-Jenny Volcano, Lesser Antilles: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems. DOI: 10.1002/2017GC007270

Caption: Centre Image is of Kick-Em Jenny: Underwater Volcano in the Caribbean: Centre Image: University of Liverpool

Whatever Your Field of Work and Wherever in the World You are, Please, Make a Choice to Do All You Can to Seek and Demand the End of Death Penalty For It is Your Business What is Done in Your Name. The Law That Makes Humans Take Part in Taking Human Lives and That Permits and Kills Human Lives is No Law. It is the Rule of the Jungle Where Law Does Not Exist. The Humanion

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New Forecast Model Provides Earliest Ever Awareness of Floods and Droughts Across the World

 

|| November 12: 2017: University of Reading News || ά. Predicting when rivers across the world are likely to flood months before they do could soon be possible because of the development of a unique new forecasting system. Researchers at the University of Reading have worked with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts:ECMWF to create the first ever global, long-range river flow forecasting model. It indicates where and when rivers are likely to have unusually high or low flow, up to four months in advance. This could mean much earlier awareness of floods and droughts than has previously been possible.

The forecasts became publicly available from November 10 as an addition to the Global Flood Awareness System:GloFAS, which is co-developed by ECMWF and the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission as part of the Copernicus Emergency Management Service. GloFAS currently offers flood forecasts up to 30 days in advance and is used by governments around the world and aid organisations like the Red Cross.
The new model is currently undergoing a rigorous evaluation, but tests indicate it has the potential to save lives by allowing authorities and aid agencies around the world to plan and prepare flood relief efforts earlier than ever before. Other potential uses include water resource management, agriculture and disaster risk reduction.

Ms Rebecca Emerton, a flood forecasting PhD researcher in the University of Reading’s Water at Reading team and Project Lead, said, “This new model could be a game-changer in that it provides hydrologically relevant forecasts out to several months for the whole globe, something, that has never been possible before. It has the potential to provide earlier indications of both floods and droughts, which could be invaluable for disaster risk reduction efforts around the world, helping vulnerable communities become more resilient to the threat of flooding.”

Communities around the world are vulnerable during and after flooding events, which put lives at risk, impact livelihoods and affect food production. The new forecasting model takes long-range forecasts from the latest version of ECMWF’s seasonal prediction system:SEAS5 and runs a hydrological model to simulate how this will impact river flow.

Professor Christel Prudhomme, Environmental Forecast Team Leader at ECMWF, said, “This is a turning point for the world’s environmental services as, for the first time, state-of-the-art long-range hydro-meteorological forecasts are freely available to communities across the globe. This would not have been possible without the strong support of the EU Copernicus programme to make the data open.”

Mr Tim Stockdale, ECMWF’s Project Lead for SEAS5, said, “The newly launched SEAS5 represents six years of model development. Extensive tests have confirmed that SEAS5 brings consistent improvements in the tropics, in particular for El Niño and La Niña events. Predictions of near-surface temperature in the northern hemisphere are also improved, notably as a result of including an interactive sea-ice model.”

Until now, the necessary computational power has not been available to run models, such as, this for the whole globe. However, the computing facilities at ECMWF allowed the research teams from the University of Reading and ECMWF to develop the new model, which is now running operationally at ECMWF.

The results of the model evaluation will be published in 2018, and will show whether the forecasts are more accurate at certain times of the year or in different parts of the world and how they are affected by other climate events like El Niño. The system will continue to undergo development, with the aim to make forecasts even further in advance in the future.

The global seasonal river flow forecasting model follows research carried out by the team which analysed El Niño and La Niña global flood hazard. The research team produced sophisticated maps illustrating the likelihood of flooding around the world during El Niño, taking into account river flow for the first time.
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Whatever Your Field of Work and Wherever in the World You are, Please, Make a Choice to Do All You Can to Seek and Demand the End of Death Penalty For It is Your Business What is Done in Your Name. The Law That Makes Humans Take Part in Taking Human Lives and That Permits and Kills Human Lives is No Law. It is the Rule of the Jungle Where Law Does Not Exist. The Humanion

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Life's Laurel Is You In One-Line-Poetry A Heaven-Bound Propagated Ray Of Light Off The Eye Of The Book Of Life: Love For You Are Only Once

 

 

Life: You Are The Law The Flow The Glow: In Joys In Hurts You Are The Vine-Songs On The Light-Trellis

 

 

 

 

   
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

|| All copyrights @ The Humanion: London: England: United Kingdom || Contact: The Humanion: editor at thehumanion.com || Regine Humanics Foundation Ltd: reginehumanics at reginehumanicsfoundation.com || Editor: Munayem Mayenin || First Published: September 24: 2015 ||
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