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First Published: September 24: 2015
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Ecology Arkive

Majestic Dolphins












Ecology is Not What is Out There, Irrelevant, Far Away, Remote, Outside and Beyond Us But Our Home: If, We Let It Become Devastated Ruins We Let Ourselves Live and Suffer in This Devastation, as Well as, Ruining and Devastating the Entire Web of Life. We Can Not Live Well, If, We Do Not Seek to Ensure Everything Lives Well for These Dolphins Can Not Live Well, If, the Oceans are Poisoned. As an Individual Human Soul, a Human Can Not Exist Well, If, the Entire Society is Poisonous or the Earth is Poisoned with Polluted Air or Water. Therefore, Selfishness is Anti-Existence, Anti-Humanity, Anti-Nature, Anti-Life, Anti-Science and Anti-Reason. Commonness, Connections, Oneness and Unison in Goal, Work and Creation is What Humanity is About. If, We Need Support for This View Just Bring in Mind the Human Physiology and See How It All Works in Oneness and Unison So to Ensure Existence is Not Only Sustainable But, Also, Being at Homeostasis, It is Ensured to Continue to Flow.....

Arctic Warming Will Accelerate Climate Change and Impact the Global Economy by Multi-trillion Dollars



|| Monday: April 29: 2019: Lancaster University News || ά. Carbon, released into the atmosphere by the increasing loss of Arctic permafrost, combined with higher solar absorption by the Earth’s surface due to the melting of sea ice and land snow, will accelerate climate change and have a multi-trillion dollar impact on the world economy. A new Paper, published in Nature Communications, shows a combination of these factors has the potential to increase the long-term economic impact of climate change by just under $70 trillion, under mitigation levels consistent with current national pledges to cut carbon emissions, 05% of the estimated total cost of climate change for this scenario.

Under the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change:IPCC Paris Agreement target of global temperature rises being limited to 01.5C from pre-industrial levels, the extra impact drops to $25 trillion, 04% of the total cost for this scenario. In both cases, the primary driver behind the additional costs is the emitted permafrost carbon. The inter-disciplinary research team hope their assessments will provide a better understanding of the socio-economic risks from climate change under different scenarios and help guide policy-makers towards prudent decisions on emissions reduction targets.

Researchers explored simulations of complex, advanced, physical models to quantify the strength of the permafrost carbon feedback:PCF, driven by the additional carbon, released from thawing permafrost and of the surface albedo feedback:SAF, driven by the extra solar energy, absorbed by the Earth’s surface as the white sea ice and land snow cover declines, exposing darker ocean and land.

Nearly, all climate policy studies to date, have implied a constant SAF and zero PCF. However, recent observations and computer models show the permafrost feedback is the stronger of the two and that both are non-linear, their strength changing in complex ways as the climate warms. This affects their impact on both the global climate and economy.

“Arctic sea ice and land snow currently contribute around a third each to the global albedo feedback.” said the Lead Author of the Paper, Mr Dmitry Yumashev, of the Pentland Centre for Sustainability in Business at Lancaster University.

“These two components are set to peak for global temperatures within the range, covered by the Paris Agreement but, if, the climate warms further, the summer and spring sea ice and land snow covers will retreat further north and the albedo feedback will actually weaken.

The permafrost feedback, however, grows progressively stronger in warmer climates. Both feedbacks are characterised by non-linear responses to warming, including, a varying lag between rising global temperature and permafrost carbon emissions.

Compared with zero PCF and constant SAF from present-day climate, legacy values used in climate policy modelling to this point, the combined non-linear PCF and SAF cause significant extra warming globally under low and medium emissions scenarios.’’

Low emissions scenarios in the study include meeting the 01.5°C and 02°C Paris Agreement targets relative to pre-industrial conditions by 2100, while medium emissions scenarios include mitigation levels consistent with current national pledges:NDCs. Under the NDCs, the world is set to warm by around 03°C relative to pre-industrial by 2,100.

High emissions scenarios, such as, the current business as usual trajectory:BaU, expected to lead to around 04°C of warming by 2,100 and cause by far the highest impacts on eco-systems and societies, are, also, included. Under these, the strength of the PCF reaches its peak and does not increase further, while the continued weakening of the SAF gradually cancels the warming effect of the PCF.

For the purposes of the research, other major planetary feedbacks, such as, those driven by changes in clouds and water vapour in response to warming, are assumed to remain constant, supported by the last two generations of climate models.

Under all scenarios, using the non-linear Arctic feedbacks compared to previous constant values leads to an increase to the total cost of climate change, consisting of the mitigation costs of cutting emissions, climate adaptation costs and residual climate-related impacts. The increases occur primarily through additional temperature-driven impacts on economy, eco-systems and human health and additional impacts from sea level rise.

All costs were estimated, using simulations in specially developed integrated assessment model PAGE-ICE, which includes simple statistical representations of the Arctic feedbacks, derived from complex models. It has multiple updates to climate science and economics, including, up-to-date uncertainty estimates.

Under the NDCs scenario, the additional estimated impact based on thousands of simulations of the nonlinear PCF and SAF is just under $70 trillion compared to their previously used values, exceeding, by around 10 times current estimates for long-terms economic gains from transit shipping routes and mineral resource extraction in the Arctic region.

With previous estimates for Arctic feedbacks, the total cost of climate change, associated with the 01.5C and 02C scenarios is virtually the same and is around $600 trillion, in comparison, the estimated cost of business as usual is around $2,000 trillion. Non-linear PCF and SAF add further $25 trillion to the $600 trillion figure for the 01.5C scenario and $34 trillion for the 02C scenario. Thus, the non-linear Arctic feedbacks make the more ambitious 01.5C target marginally more economically attractive.

Dr Yumashev further said, “Our findings support the need for more proactive mitigation measures to keep global temperature rise well below 02C. We hope, our work will lead to further assessments of multiple non-linear processes in the Earth’s climate system, both those associated with the Arctic and beyond.”

The research is part of the ICE-ARC project, funded by the European Union’s 7th Framework Programme, grant 603887.

The authors of the study are: Dmitry Yumashev, Gail Whiteman and Paul Young, of the Pentland Centre for Sustainability in Business and Lancaster Environment Centre at Lancaster University; Chris Hope, of the Judge Business School at the University of Cambridge; Kevin Schaefer, of the National Snow and Ice Date Centre at the University of Colorado, USA; Kathrin Riemann-Campe, of the Alfred Wegener Institute, Germany; Fernando Iglesias-Suarez, of the Institute of Physical Chemistry Rocasolano, Spain; Elchin Jafarov, of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA; Eleanor J Burke, of the UK Met Office and Yasin Elshorbany, of the University of South Florida, USA.:::ω.

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Stockholm Environment Institute: New Report Details How US Policy-Makers Can Phase Out Fossil Fuels: This Phase-Out Must Be Done Equitably Both as an Ethical Imperative and a Political Necessity



|| February 26: 2019 || ά. As the American Congress focuses anew on climate change, Stockholm Environment Institute:SEI researchers outline three principles to inform the pace and structure of a rapid phase-out of U.S fossil fuel production. This new SEI Working Paper aims to help federal and state policy-makers wind down oil, gas and coal extraction, through the use of principles, that consider not only economics and science but, also, equity and other critical social dimensions.

The Paper comes as the House Democrats, newly in control of the Chamber, have put climate change back on the Congressional agenda, with a slate of hearings scheduled over the next few days and weeks. “The U.S should take on a leadership role in aligning fossil fuel production with climate limits. It is one of the world’s very top fossil fuel producers, both historically and currently and has tremendous financial resources,” said Ms Jessica Koski, an SEI Associate, who is the Lead Author of the paper. “This phase-out must be done equitably, both as an ethical imperative and a political necessity.”

“With this Paper, we hope to provide a structure for guiding what will, no doubt, be a difficult dialogue.” said the Report Author Mr Peter Erickson, an SEI Senior Scientist. “Phasing out production comes with political challenges and it will require a democratic dialogue, that engages impacted communities and various stakeholders.”

Globally, meeting the global warming limits in the Paris Agreement will require fossil fuel consumption and production to, almost, immediately, peak, with a rapid decline thereafter. Several countries are already winding down new exploration and production. The Working Paper helps advance that conversation in the U.S, by outlining how the federal government and state-level resource managers could begin to fairly decide which regions need to phase out extraction most rapidly.

In their Working Paper, ‘Principles for Aligning U.S Fossil Fuel Extraction with Climate Limits’ Ms Koski and her colleagues detail three guiding principles, that policy-makers can use to inform the pace and structure of the necessary decline in production:

Reduce fossil fuel production at a pace consistent with climate protection. Move, even, faster where fuels are the most carbon-intensive and costly.

Accelerate the phase-out where communities are most resilient. Consider what financial resources can be made available to communities where adaptation will be more difficult and involve local communities in shaping their post-fossil-fuel economies.

Safeguard human rights, cultural resources and the local environment. Minimise harm by rapidly phasing out extraction where it threatens Indigenous rights, public health and areas of high conservation value.

“Federal and state agencies have an opportunity to ensure that the transition away from fossil fuels is equitable and fair, rather than sudden and disruptive.” said Co-author Mr Sivan Kartha, an SEI Senior Scientist. “The principles in our Paper will, hopefully, further the discussion, so policy-makers can plan an effective phase-out of fossil fuels, that has the buy-in of the American public.”

Read the Paper:::ω.

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The State of the Ozone Layer: Despite the Ozone Layer Recovering Banned Substances Are Still Being Released



|| February 21: 2019: Lancaster University News || ά. While the ozone layer is recovering due to international action, banned substances are still being released. However, not all ozone-depleting substances are currently banned. Scientists from Lancaster University are among global experts, who produced the UN’s latest Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, published in full earlier this month. It brings together current knowledge about the health of the stratospheric ozone layer, which protects life on Earth from harmful levels of the sun’s ultraviolet rays.

The Assessment reports on the progress of the Montreal Protocol, the 30 year old international agreement, which committed 197 countries to phase out production of chlorofluorocarbons:CFCs, used in refrigeration and air conditioning and other ozone-depleting substances. Dr Ryan Hossaini, from the Lancaster Environment Centre, has been leading research into ozone depleting compounds and is a Co-author of the Assessment. He said, “The Montreal Protocol continues to be a phenomenal success and a great example of the international community coming together.

However, there is now a very strong indication that CFC-11, a gas, whose production is banned under the Montreal Protocol, is, actually, being emitted, when it shouldn’t be. Starting from around 2013, measurements indicate that CFC-11 in the atmosphere is declining at a slower rate than expected and that emissions are likely increasing in Eastern Asia; we can’t pinpoint where they are coming from more accurately than that. 

There is, also, strong evidence that certain ozone-depleting compounds not currently controlled by the Montreal Protocol are increasing in the atmosphere. This class of compounds are known as VSLS, very short lived substances. Lancaster University has been leading research into this class of compounds.”

Dr Paul Young, a Climate Scientist from the Lancaster Environment Centre, is a Co-author of the Assessment chapter on the polar regions. He said, “Although, the Antarctic ozone hole is still with us, the weight of evidence is that we are beginning to see signs of recovery. The ozone hole is a powerful reminder of our capacity to harm the environment but, due to the successes of the Montreal Protocol in controlling key ozone depleting substances, we are confident that the ozone hole will heal by the time this century is out.

We do not see the same severe ozone loss in the Arctic but, 2011 did come close. While ozone depleting substances remain, similar losses remain a possibility depending on what the weather is doing in the ozone layer. But, again due to the Montreal Protocol, we do expect Arctic ozone levels to recover by the middle of this century."

Looking to the future, the Assessment emphasises the importance of the Kigali Amendment to the Protocol, which came into effect in January. It commits signatories to reducing hydrofluorocarbons:HFCs, a later generation of ozone-depleting chemical, by 80% over the next 30 years.

Hydrofluorocarbons are greenhouse gases, that are hundreds to thousands of times more potent than carbon dioxide and so contribute to global warming. The Assessment calculates that the world can avoid up to 0.4°C of global warming this century through implementation of the Kigali Amendment, giving it a critical role in keeping global temperature rise below the 02°C mark.

Read the Report

Caption: False-color view of total ozone over the Antarctic pole. The purple and blue colours are where there is the least ozone, and the yellows and reds are where there is more ozone: Image: NASA:::ω.

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New Research Finds Toxic Bacteria on Micro-plastics Retrieved From Tropical Waters




|| February 12: 2019: 2019: National University of Singapore News || ά. When micro-plastics or tiny pieces of plastics are ingested by marine organisms, they, may, accumulate and be transferred up the food chain. A Field Survey, conducted by a team of marine scientists from the University has uncovered toxic bacteria, living on the surfaces of micro-plastics, which are pieces of plastic smaller than five millimetres in size, collected from the coastal areas of Singapore. These bacteria are capable of causing coral bleaching and triggering wound infections in humans.

The researchers, also, discovered a diversity of bacteria, including, useful organisms, such as, those, that can degrade marine pollutants like hydrocarbons, in the plastic waste. This Study is the first to examine the bacterial community on micro-plastics, found in tropical coastal regions. There are currently more than 150 million tonnes of plastics in the ocean. Micro-plastics, in particular, pose an evident problem as many marine organisms, such as, shrimps, mussels and fish, often, mistake these tiny plastics for food.

Dr Sandric Leong, the Research Lead and Senior Research Fellow at the NUS Tropical Marine Science Institute, said, “Micro-plastics form a large proportion of plastic pollution in marine environments. Marine organisms, may, consume bits of micro-plastics unintentionally and this could lead to the accumulation and subsequent transfer of marine pathogens in the food chain. Hence, understanding the distribution of micro-plastics and identifying the organisms, attached to them, are crucial steps in managing the plastic pollution on a national and global scale.”

Compared to micro-plastics on land, micro-plastics in aquatic eco-systems take a much longer time to degrade due to the presence of salt and a lower temperature in the ocean. As a result, they present a habitable environment for marine biota to colonise. Yet, despite their prevalence, the distribution of micro-plastics along the coasts of tropical regions is not well studied.

Dr Leong and Ms Emily Curren, a PhD student from TMSI and the Department of Biological Sciences at the NUS Faculty of Science, embarked on a six-month study to examine the bacterial communities on micro-plastics collected from coastal regions of Singapore.

Between April and July 2018, the research team collected and examined 275 pieces of micro-plastics from three beaches along the coastline of Singapore, namely, Lazarus Island, Sembawang Beach and Changi Beach. By using high-through-put sequencing techniques, the researchers discovered more than 400 different types of bacteria across all the micro-plastics collected.

Species of the bacteria Erythrobacter, which is capable of degrading plastic and bacteria species Pseudomonas veronii, which have been used to clean up oil spills, were found. “Given the predicted increase in plastic waste contamination in oceans, the discovery of such bacteria provides important nature-friendly alternatives for the mitigation of plastic pollution and toxic pollutants, such as, hydrocarbons.” said Ms Curren.

In contrast, the bacteria Photobacterium rosenbergii, often, associated with coral bleaching and disease, was, also, identified. The proliferation and accumulation of this bacterium could be detrimental to the coral reefs in Singapore as the southern strait is characterised by multiple coral communities with great bio-diversity, that are under conservation.

The researchers uncovered species of marine Vibrio, a major cause of wound infections in humans and species of Arcobacter, known to cause gastro-enteritis in humans. “As the micro-plastics we studied were collected from locations, easily, accessible to the public and in areas, widely used for recreation, the identification of, potentially, pathogenic bacteria would be important in preventing the spread of diseases.” said Ms Curren.

This Study demonstrates that micro-plastics are a rich habitat, that is home to many types of bacteria, including, toxic ones. The research team will conduct further studies to examine the origin of the bacteria species transported by the micro-plastics. This will allow the identification of non-native species, that threaten the existing bio-diversity, and provide insights on managing the urgent issue of marine plastic pollution.

Caption: Doctoral student Emily Curren, examining micro-plastic samples, collected from coastal areas of Singapore.:::ω.

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Year Alpha Arkive 2015-16

Life's Laurel Is You In One-Line-Poetry A Heaven-Bound Propagated Ray Of Light Off The Eye Of The Book Of Life: Love For You Are Only Once



Life: You Are The Law The Flow The Glow: In Joys In Hurts You Are The Vine-Songs On The Light-Trellis


























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