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Ecology Arkive


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Ecology is Not What is Out There, Irrelevant, Far Away, Remote, Outside and Beyond Us But Our Home: If, We Let It Become Devastated Ruins We Let Ourselves Live and Suffer in This Devastation, as Well as, Ruining and Devastating the Entire Web of Life. We Can Not Live Well, If, We Do Not Seek to Ensure Everything Lives Well for These Dolphins Can Not Live Well, If, the Oceans are Poisoned. As an Individual Human Soul, a Human Can Not Exist Well, If, the Entire Society is Poisonous or the Earth is Poisoned with Polluted Air or Water. Therefore, Selfishness is Anti-Existence, Anti-Humanity, Anti-Nature, Anti-Life, Anti-Science and Anti-Reason. Commonness, Connections, Oneness and Unison in Goal, Work and Creation is What Humanity is About. If, We Need Support for This View Just Bring in Mind the Human Physiology and See How It All Works in Oneness and Unison So to Ensure Existence is Not Only Sustainable But, Also, Being at Homeostasis, It is Ensured to Continue to Flow.....

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Reaching International Climate Change Goals Can Halve Rising Sea Levels by the End of the Century




|| October 14: 2018: University of Southampton News || ά. Research by scientists at the University of Southampton has shown the extent, by which, achieving the ambitions the 2015 Paris Climate Change agreement could protect coastal communities from rising sea levels. A new Special Report on the impacts of global warming of 01.5 °C above pre-industrial levels, just published, by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change:IPCC and heavily draws on five pieces of research by the University of Southampton team.

The University’s studies indicated that measures to limit global warming to 01.5°C could halve the amount, by which, sea levels rise by the end of the century, reducing it to 40cm as opposed to 78cm, if, no action to mitigate for climate change is taken. If, global warming is kept to 02.0°C, sea-levels are projected to rise by 46cm. Beyond 2,100, the impact of the 01.5°C aspiration grows substantially as the studies indicate it could reduce sea-level rise by over 03m by 2,300. The scientists, also, found that by the turn of the century, 740,000 km2, an area three times the size of the UK, could be exposed to flooding without mitigation.

However, this figure would reduce by 130,000 km2 over the same period, if, governments succeed in hitting the Paris Agreement goals. By the year 2,300, 1,600,000 km2 could be exposed to flooding without mitigation but climate change mitigation could, more than halve this, reducing the total land at risk to 700,000 km2.

Dr Sally Brown, the Lead Author on the IPCC report’s chapter ‘Impacts of 01.5°C of Global Warming on Natural and Human Systems’ and a researcher at Southampton and Bournemouth Universities, said, "Climate change mitigation will make a substantial difference to the inevitable impacts of sea-level rise over very long time scales, with between 01.5% and 05.4% of the world’s population exposed to flooding in 2,300 depending on how well we mitigate for climate change."

Other findings from the University’s research cited in the IPCC report indicate that by the end of the 21st century, the differences in land and people exposed to flooding between 01.5°C or 02.0°C increases are relatively small, compared with a no mitigation scenario. Taking account of projected population change, six million more people will be exposed to flooding in 2,100 under a 02.0°C increase compared with an increase of 01.5°C.

The studies, also, indicated this importance of adapting to sea-level rise. Professor Robert Nicholls, Professor of Coastal Engineering at the University of Southampton, said, "Collectively, these analyses show that the best societal response to sea-level rise is climate change mitigation to reduce the risk to manageable levels and adaptation in response to the residual unavoidable rise."

Co-author Dr Ivan Haigh, Associate Professor in Ocean and Earth Science at the University of Southampton, said, "These results indicate the importance and benefits of climate change mitigation on fragile and vulnerable environments, such as, small islands or low-lying highly populated deltas."

The research, also, highlighted how quickly global warming could reach the 01.5 degree limit under existing emission levels. Dr Philip Goodwin, Lecturer in Ocean and Earth Science at the University of Southampton and the Lead Author in two of the studies cited in the IPCC Report, said, "Our results indicated, there is an extremely narrow window of time to reduce carbon emissions. A carbon-neutral society is required by the 2,040s to prevent warming exceeding 01.5°C or, else, we, must, prepare for the increased impacts of climate change on the coasts.":::ω.

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Ice Age Discovery May Show the Early Migration Route of the First Americans



|| September 26: 2018 || ά. A group of researchers have discovered that the retreat of an ancient ice sheet from the western coast of Canada occurred earlier than previously thought. Dr Christopher Darvill from the University of Manchester’s Department of Geography is the Lead Author of a new paper, published in Geophysical Research Letters. Dr Darvill and his co-authors studied the Cordilleran Ice Sheet in North America, which, once, covered an area the size of the Greenland Ice Sheet, to improve our understanding of past climate and ancient human migration.

The retreat of the ice sheet controlled when routes were opened, that allowed ancient people to migrate south into the Americas. Which route was used and, when, remains a highly contentious topic amongst archaeologists and geologists. Dr Darvill and colleagues from universities in Canada and the USA used a helicopter to reach remote island locations along the Canadian coast. The research team chipped rock samples from the tops of boulders and bedrock, before taking them back to a lab to investigate further.

"We used a technique, called, ‘surface exposure dating’, where we measured the concentration of a rare isotope of beryllium in rocks exposed by the retreating ice." said Darvill. ‘’The isotope accumulates in certain rocks over time as they are bombarded by high-energy particles, cosmic rays, from outer space. Measuring the isotope tells you how much time has passed since the rock was exposed by retreating ice."

They found sites close to the present coastline were exposed at least 17,700 years ago, suggesting that the islands along the coastline were ice-free at this time. Some higher locations were exposed, even, earlier. This is important, because it suggests an early route along the coastline of Canada, might, have been viable well before an alternative, inland route.

The findings should help archaeologists target investigations tracing the migration pathways of early people into the Americas.

"Our work changes the model of when this ice sheet retreated in the past, improving our understanding of past climate change over western North America." said Dr Darvill. "The new findings add an exciting piece to the puzzle surrounding the colonisation of the continent."

The research received funding from the Tula Foundation, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada Discovery programme, Canada Research Chairs Programme and the Canada Foundation for Innovation. 

The Paper: Retreat of the Western Cordilleran Ice Sheet Margin During the Last Deglaciation: Christopher M. Darvill, tThe University of Manchester, UK, Brian Menounos, University of Northern British Columbia, Canada, Brent M. Goehring, Tulane University, USA, Olav B. Lian, University of the Fraser Valley, Canada and Marc W. Caffee Purdue University, USA: Published in Geophysical Research Letters

Image: Retreat of the Western Cordilleran Ice Sheet Margin During the Last Deglaciation by Christopher M. Darvill:::ω.

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When the Sea Advances: What Does It Do


|| September 25: 2018 || ά. Scientists are gathering in the Azores this week to share findings on how satellite has shown changes in the height of the sea, ice, inland bodies of water and more. Of concern to all is the fact that global sea level has not only been rising steadily over the last 25 years but recently it is rising at a much fast rate. The 25 Years of Progress in Radar Altimetry Symposium gives participants the opportunity to share information gained from this particular sort of satellite instrument.

Radar altimeters record the surface topography along the satellite’s ground track. They precisely measure the height of water, land and ice by timing the interval between the transmission and reception of very short radar pulses. This is the only technology, that can measure, systematically and globally, changes in the height of the ocean and is, therefore, essential for monitoring sea-level rise. The 25-year record of altimetry data allows scientists to determine trends. For example, between 1993 and 2018 the global ocean rose 03.2 mm every year, on average.

But, altimetry measurements, also,  show that over the last five years the global ocean has risen, on average, 04.8 mm a year. Ms Anny Cazenave from the Laboratoire d’Etudes en Géophysique et Océanographie Spatiales, said, “Satellite altimeters are an essential tool for monitoring sea-level rise. We use reference missions, such as, the CNES–NASA series of Jason satellites along with other missions, such as, the Copernicus Sentinel-Three mission to gather a time series of data to understand how sea level is changing in the long term.

This information shows that sea level has been rising at an average rate of about  03 mm a year since these records began in 1993. However, recent re-analysis of our records has shown that sea-level rise is accelerating because of global warming.”

ESA’s Mr Jérôme Benveniste said, “With many millions living in coastal communities around the world, sea-level rise is a major concern. The information we get from satellite altimeters is essential for understanding how fast our seas are rising so that decision-makers are equipped to take appropriate mitigating action.

At this week’s symposium we are not only looking back over the last 25 years of satellite altimetry but we are, also, looking to the future as we have the Copernicus Sentinel-Six mission in development and, also, a number of candidate satellite missions being studied. It is vital that we have satellite altimeters in the future to continue this long-term record of change.”

While trends and averages are important, it is equally important to understand regional differences. In some places the height of the sea is rising and in other places it is falling. There are a number of reasons for this. For example, when seawater warms it, also, expands, leading to a phenomenon called thermal expansion.

Although, thermal expansion is the biggest cause of sea-level rise as a consequence of climate change, there are many local differences. These differences can be caused by events, such as, El Niño, for example. Ice loss from the continental glaciers and from the polar ice sheets is, also, one of the most critical drivers of our rising seas. Ice loss from glaciers, Greenland and Antarctica accounts for about 45% of sea-level rise.

Another cause is discharge from waterbodies on land but how much this contributes to sea-level rise is more uncertain. As the symposium progresses, other scientific findings and discussions on the future will be discussed. :::ω.

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Life: You Are The Law The Flow The Glow: In Joys In Hurts You Are The Vine-Songs On The Light-Trellis


























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