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First Published: September 24: 2015
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Ecology Arkive

Majestic Dolphins












Ecology is Not What is Out There, Irrelevant, Far Away, Remote, Outside and Beyond Us But Our Home: If, We Let It Become Devastated Ruins We Let Ourselves Live and Suffer in This Devastation, as Well as, Ruining and Devastating the Entire Web of Life. We Can Not Live Well, If, We Do Not Seek to Ensure Everything Lives Well for These Dolphins Can Not Live Well, If, the Oceans are Poisoned. As an Individual Human Soul, a Human Can Not Exist Well, If, the Entire Society is Poisonous or the Earth is Poisoned with Polluted Air or Water. Therefore, Selfishness is Anti-Existence, Anti-Humanity, Anti-Nature, Anti-Life, Anti-Science and Anti-Reason. Commonness, Connections, Oneness and Unison in Goal, Work and Creation is What Humanity is About. If, We Need Support for This View Just Bring in Mind the Human Physiology and See How It All Works in Oneness and Unison So to Ensure Existence is Not Only Sustainable But, Also, Being at Homeostasis, It is Ensured to Continue to Flow.....

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Plastic Waste Disintegrates Into Nano-Particles: New Study Finds




|| January 20: 2019: Lund University News || ά. There is a considerable risk that plastic waste in the environment releases nano-sized particles or nano-plastics, according to a new study from Lund University. The researchers studied what happened when takeaway coffee cup lids, for example, were subjected to mechanical breakdown, in an effort to mimic the degradation, that happens to plastic in the ocean. The majority of all marine debris is plastic. Calculations have shown that ten per cent of all plastic produced globally ends up in the sea.

This plastic waste is subjected to both chemical and mechanical degradation. The sun’s UV rays contribute to the degradation, as do waves, which cause plastic waste to grind against stones on the water’s edge, against the sea floor or against other debris. Is there a risk that this plastic waste disintegrates to the extent that nano-plastics is released? The research community is divided on whether the degradation process stops at slightly larger plastic fragments, micro-plastics or, actually, continues and creates, even, smaller particles.

The researchers behind the study have now investigated this issue by subjecting plastic material to mechanical degradation under experimental conditions.

“We have been able to show that the mechanical effect on the plastic causes the disintegration of plastic down to nano-sized plastic fragments.” says Mr Tommy Cedervall, chemistry researcher at Lund University. The study relates to the larger issue of what happens to plastic in the environment and how plastic can affect animals and humans.

Plastic nano-sized particles are a few millionths of a millimetre, i.e, extremely small particles, so small that they have been shown to reach far into the bodies of living organisms.

Last year, in an earlier study from Lund University, researchers showed that nano-sized plastic particles can enter the brains of fish and that this caused brain damage, which, probably, disturbs fish behaviour. Although, the study was conducted in a laboratory environment, it indicated that nano-plastics can lead to adverse consequences.

The emphasis of a number of other recent studies from the research community has been on micro-plastics and their increased distribution among organisms. There are now intense attempts to, also, identify nano-plastics in the environment.

“It’s important to begin mapping what happens to disintegrated plastic in nature.” says Mr Tommy Cedervall.

The Paper: Nano-plastics formed during the mechanical breakdown of daily-use polystyrene products:::ω.

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New Research to Work in Finding Ways and Means to Deal with and Respond to Plastic Pollution and Seek to Advance the Circular Economy Receives Multi-Million Pounds Funding

















|| December 24: 2018: University of Manchester News || ά. Researchers and scientists from across The University of Manchester are coming together in the fight against plastic pollution as part of a new multimillion-pound, Government-backed scheme. The University will lead on the UKRI funded ‘Rethinking Resources and Recycling’ project, which is one of eight research projects, funded through Plastics Research Innovation Fund:PRIT, that will explore new and different ways of making, using and recycling plastics. The Manchester-based project has several specific elements, looking at plastic production and uses across both consumer-led and industrial sectors.

Its primary aim is to reduce the need for plastic by addressing demand and consumer behaviour, as well as, developing circular economy business models for users to eliminate their plastic waste. It will, also, evaluate challenges facing new manufacturing processes. The project will, also, take a practical element with the University scientists developing polymers for cleaner degradation and new soft plastic recycling and micro-plastic removal methods. Overall, the Government, via the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council:EPSRC, has put £08 million behind the eight, far-reaching projects, each of which is based at a single higher education institution. They will begin in early 2019.

Rhe Science Minister, ME Chris Skidmore, who announced the funding, said, “We have all seen the devastating effects, that plastics waste has on our environment, threatening the biodiversity of our oceans and introducing micro plastics into the food chain. We are committed to tackling this problem. The £08 million projects announced today, from developing a plastic-eating bacteria to finding new ways to recycle, have the potential to lead us to a cleaner, greener economy through our modern Industrial Strategy.” 

The interdisciplinary projects at Manchester will see researchers come from across the University to pool their different ideas, expertise and research disciplines. These include staff from the Schools of Mechanical Aerospace and Civil Engineering, Materials, Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, Chemistry and Environment, Education and Development, as well as, the Alliance Manchester Business School.

Professor Lin Li, who leads the University project, Associate Dean of Business Engagement and Innovation in Faculty Science and Engineering, in the School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, said, “The world is waking up to the global issues posed by plastics pollution. Now is the time to act and Universities, and the wider research community, need to be at the forefront of finding ways to reduce it.

This project aims to generate and evaluate new ideas based on coordinated, cross-disciplinary projects and stakeholder engagements.”:::ω.

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It Is Time to Deal With the 2025 Million Takeaway Food Containers Used Every Year in the European Union: Their Environmental Cost Is Too High: New Study




|| December 23: 2018: University of Manchester News || ά. According to scientists, more should be done to tackle the growing environmental impact of takeaway food containers. A new Study estimates that there are 2025 million takeaway containers per year being used in the European Union alone. The Study suggest that finding a way to recycle disposable takeaway containers could help reduce equivalent greenhouse gas emissions generated annually by 55,000 cars.

The researchers, from the University's School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, have carried out the first ever comprehensive study of the environmental impacts of disposable takeaway-food containers. They looked at aluminium, polystyrene or styrofoam and polypropylene or clear plastic, containers. These were compared to re-usable plastic containers, such as, Tupperware. For example, the Study found that, whilst Styrofoam containers had the lowest carbon footprint, 50% lower than aluminium containers and three times lower than their plastic counterparts, they can not be considered a sustainable packaging as they are not recycled at a mass level and, often, end up in landfill.

The global takeaway food market is growing fast, with a projected value of over £80 billion in 2020. The sector uses a vast amount of disposable takeaway containers. Despite this, the scale of the impacts on the environment of takeaway-food containers used in this growing sector was not measured until now.

The Study used life cycle assessment:LCA to estimate the impacts of containers, taking into account their manufacture, use and end of life waste management. Altogether, the research team investigated 12 different environmental impacts, including, climate change, depletion of natural resources and marine ecotoxicity.

The Study found that the styrofoam container was the best option among the disposable containers across all the impacts considered, including, the carbon footprint. For example, the styrofoam container had 50% lower carbon footprint than aluminium and three times lower than the plastic. This is because of the lower amount of materials and energy used in the production of styrofoam compared to the other two types of container.

However, styrofoam containers are currently not recycled and can not be considered a sustainable packaging option. The Study estimates that recycling half of the containers currently in use, as envisaged by the EU recycling policy for the year 2025, would reduce their carbon footprint by a third. This would save 61,700t CO2 eq. per year at the EU level, equivalent to the greenhouse gas emissions generated annually by 55,000 cars. Most other impacts would be reduced by more than 20%.

Dr Alejandro Gallego-Schmid, the Lead Author, said, ‘’Achieving this level of recycling of styrofoam containers is going to be challenging. Although, technically possible and practised at small scale in some countries, the main difficulties are related to collecting the used containers and the associated costs.’’

Dr Joan Fernandez Mendoza, one of the Study authors, said, ‘’Because they are so light, the styrofoam containers can easily be blown away, contributing to urban and marine litter. So, despite their lower life cycle environmental impacts relative to the other containers, styrofoam containers can not be considered a sustainable packaging option unless they can be recycled at a large scale.’’

The Study, further, found that re-usable Tupperware containers had a lower carbon footprint than disposable Styrofoam, when they were reused more than 18 times. This is despite the energy and water used for their cleaning. Disposable clear-plastic containers needed to be re-used, even, fewer times, only five, to become better for the carbon footprint than the styrofoam.

Professor Adisa Azapagic, the Project Leader, said, ‘’As consumers, we can play a significant role in reducing the environmental impacts of food packaging by re-using food containers as long as possible. Our study shows clearly that the longer we reuse them, the lower their impacts become over their extended lifetimes.’’

The Paper: This Study Results are published in the Journal of Cleaner Production:::ω.

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Old Mines Cast a Long Shadow on Their Surroundings



|| December 18: 2018: University of Eastern Finland News || ά. Local stakeholders need more information than is currently available to them on the impacts of former mining activities on ground water and surface water, potential soil contamination and the safety of natural products, a new Study from Finland shows. The majority of the respondents, generally, regarded post-mining sites as unpleasant places, that are in need of better reclamation and landscaping measures.

“Our study shows that more attention should be paid to post-mining land use planning. This is important, especially, when we take into consideration the fact that the demand for various minerals is growing globally and the average size of mining projects has, generally, increased.’’ Researcher Mx Sonja Kivinen from the University of Eastern Finland says. The Study was carried out in collaboration between the University of Eastern Finland and the Finnish Environment Institute. The researchers used a public participation geographic information system approach to analyse local residents’ and visitors’ conceptions of two post-mining areas in northern Finland.

Mine re-opening is currently planned in these areas. Spatially explicit data on values, opinions and knowledge needs was collected with an online map-based survey tool. Opinions on the planned mine reopening project were strongly divided among the respondents, especially, with regard to whether a large open-pit mine and nature-based tourism can co-exist in the same region.

The Study shows that observed environmental impacts, as well as, uncertainties and knowledge gaps related to these impacts can affect local stakeholders’ land use in areas surrounding old mines.

“The shadow cast by old mines is long. The impacts on local land use are experienced far outside the mining sites and long after their closure.  When old mining sites are not reclaimed and landscaped properly, this has an effect on landscape values, natural values and possibilities for post-mining land use.”Ms Kivinen says.

According to the researchers, areas surrounding post-mining sites contain a wide diversity of positive experiences and values relating to the landscape, recreation and natural products.  In the two areas studied in northern Finland, environmental impacts were highlighted as a cause for concern.

New and reopened mines are usually larger than before and this places increasing emphasis on the significance of reclamation and post-mining land use planning.

“Better understanding of different stakeholders’ values, opinions and knowledge needs could, significantly, improve post-mining land use planning and help in retaining different types of activities in their surrounding areas.” says Ms Kivinen. 

For further information, contact: Sonja Kivinen: tele: +358 40 588 4185: email: sonja.kivinen at

The Paper: Kivinen, S, Vartiainen, K, Kumpula, T: People and Post-Mining Environments: PPGIS Mapping of Landscape Values, Knowledge Needs, and Future Perspectives in Northern Finland: Published in Land 2018:::ω. 

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If All Fossil Fuel Subsidies Were Phased Out Global Carbon Emissions Could Be Reduced by up to 10% by 2030: Yet a New UN Report Finds CO2 Emissions on the Rise for the First Time in Four Years: UNEP Urges the World’s Governments to Triple Their Efforts to Curb These Emissions
















|| November 27: 2018 || ά. A new Report, released on Tuesday by the United Nations Environment Programme:UNEP shows that global carbon dioxide:CO2 emissions rose again during 2017 after a three year hiatus, highlighting the imperative for countries to deliver on the historic Paris Agreement to keep global warming to below 02°C above pre-industrial levels. The Report comes just days before the key UN climate change conference, known as, COP 24, taking place in Katowice, Poland, with the agency urging nations to triple their efforts to curb harmful emissions.

The UNEP Report is published following the watershed Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change:IPCC Report on global warming, released in October, which cautioned that emissions had to stop rising now, in order to keep temperature increases below 01.5°C and reduce the risks for the well-being of the planet and its people. “If, the IPCC Report represented a global fire alarm, this Report is the arson investigation.” said UNEP’s Deputy Executive Director Ma Joyce Msuya. “The science is clear; for all the ambitious climate action we’ve seen, governments need to move faster and with greater urgency. We’re feeding this fire while the means to extinguish it are within reach.”

Heat-trapping CO2 gas in the atmosphere is largely responsible for rising global temperatures, according to the overwhelming body of scientific evidence. UNEP’s 2018 Global Emissions Report, show global emissions have reached historic levels. Total annual greenhouse gas emissions, including, from change in land-use, reached a record high of 53.5 Gigatons in 2017, an increase of 0.7 compared with 2016.

“In contrast, global GHG emissions in 2030 need to be approximately 25 per cent and 55 per cent lower than in 2017 to put the world on a least-cost pathway to limiting global warming to 02°C and 01.5°C respectively.” said the Report.

What’s worse, the Report notes that there is no sign of reversal of this trend and that only 57 countries, representing 60 per cent of global emissions, are on track to bridge their ‘emissions gap’, meaning the gap between where we are likely to be and where we need to be.

Increased emissions and lagging action means the gap published in this year’s Report is larger than ever. UNEP stresses that while surging momentum from the private sector and untapped potential from innovation and green-financing offer pathways to bridge the emissions gap globally, the technical feasibility of limiting global warming to 01.5°C is dwindling.

The authors of the Report note that nations would need to triple their efforts on climate action without further delay, in order to meet the 02°C-rise limit by mid-century.  To meet the 01.5°C limit, they would have to quintuple their efforts. A continuation of current trends will likely result in global warming of around 03°C by the end of the century, with continued temperature rises after that, according to the Report.

“The kind of drastic, large-scale action we urgently need has yet to been seen.” said UNEP. The Report offers concrete ways for Governments to bridge their emissions gap, including, through fiscal policy, innovative technology, non-state and sub-national action and more. This ninth UNEP emissions Report has been prepared by an international team of leading scientists, assessing all available information.

“When governments embrace fiscal policy measures to subsidise low-emission alternatives and tax fossil fuels, they can stimulate the right investments in the energy sector and significantly reduce carbon emissions.” said Dr Jian Liu, UNEP’s Chief Scientist.

“Thankfully, the potential of using fiscal policy as an incentive is increasingly recognised.” said Dr Liu, referring to the 51 initiatives already in place or planned across the world to charge for carbon emissions, called, carbon pricing.

“If, all fossil fuel subsidies were phased out, global carbon emissions could be reduced by up to 10 per cent by 2030.” Dr Liu went onto say that setting the right carbon price was, also, essential. At US$70 per ton of CO2, emission reductions of up to 40 per cent were possible in some countries.”

The 2018 Global Emissions Report Report adds yet another building block of scientific evidence to inform decision-making at the upcoming UN climate change conference, which begins this Sunday and will last for two weeks. The key objective of the meeting will be to adopt an implementation plan for the 2015 Paris Agreement.

Read the Report:::ω.

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Reaching International Climate Change Goals Can Halve Rising Sea Levels by the End of the Century




|| October 14: 2018: University of Southampton News || ά. Research by scientists at the University of Southampton has shown the extent, by which, achieving the ambitions the 2015 Paris Climate Change agreement could protect coastal communities from rising sea levels. A new Special Report on the impacts of global warming of 01.5 °C above pre-industrial levels, just published, by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change:IPCC and heavily draws on five pieces of research by the University of Southampton team.

The University’s studies indicated that measures to limit global warming to 01.5°C could halve the amount, by which, sea levels rise by the end of the century, reducing it to 40cm as opposed to 78cm, if, no action to mitigate for climate change is taken. If, global warming is kept to 02.0°C, sea-levels are projected to rise by 46cm. Beyond 2,100, the impact of the 01.5°C aspiration grows substantially as the studies indicate it could reduce sea-level rise by over 03m by 2,300. The scientists, also, found that by the turn of the century, 740,000 km2, an area three times the size of the UK, could be exposed to flooding without mitigation.

However, this figure would reduce by 130,000 km2 over the same period, if, governments succeed in hitting the Paris Agreement goals. By the year 2,300, 1,600,000 km2 could be exposed to flooding without mitigation but climate change mitigation could, more than halve this, reducing the total land at risk to 700,000 km2.

Dr Sally Brown, the Lead Author on the IPCC report’s chapter ‘Impacts of 01.5°C of Global Warming on Natural and Human Systems’ and a researcher at Southampton and Bournemouth Universities, said, "Climate change mitigation will make a substantial difference to the inevitable impacts of sea-level rise over very long time scales, with between 01.5% and 05.4% of the world’s population exposed to flooding in 2,300 depending on how well we mitigate for climate change."

Other findings from the University’s research cited in the IPCC report indicate that by the end of the 21st century, the differences in land and people exposed to flooding between 01.5°C or 02.0°C increases are relatively small, compared with a no mitigation scenario. Taking account of projected population change, six million more people will be exposed to flooding in 2,100 under a 02.0°C increase compared with an increase of 01.5°C.

The studies, also, indicated this importance of adapting to sea-level rise. Professor Robert Nicholls, Professor of Coastal Engineering at the University of Southampton, said, "Collectively, these analyses show that the best societal response to sea-level rise is climate change mitigation to reduce the risk to manageable levels and adaptation in response to the residual unavoidable rise."

Co-author Dr Ivan Haigh, Associate Professor in Ocean and Earth Science at the University of Southampton, said, "These results indicate the importance and benefits of climate change mitigation on fragile and vulnerable environments, such as, small islands or low-lying highly populated deltas."

The research, also, highlighted how quickly global warming could reach the 01.5 degree limit under existing emission levels. Dr Philip Goodwin, Lecturer in Ocean and Earth Science at the University of Southampton and the Lead Author in two of the studies cited in the IPCC Report, said, "Our results indicated, there is an extremely narrow window of time to reduce carbon emissions. A carbon-neutral society is required by the 2,040s to prevent warming exceeding 01.5°C or, else, we, must, prepare for the increased impacts of climate change on the coasts.":::ω.

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Ice Age Discovery May Show the Early Migration Route of the First Americans



|| September 26: 2018 || ά. A group of researchers have discovered that the retreat of an ancient ice sheet from the western coast of Canada occurred earlier than previously thought. Dr Christopher Darvill from the University of Manchester’s Department of Geography is the Lead Author of a new paper, published in Geophysical Research Letters. Dr Darvill and his co-authors studied the Cordilleran Ice Sheet in North America, which, once, covered an area the size of the Greenland Ice Sheet, to improve our understanding of past climate and ancient human migration.

The retreat of the ice sheet controlled when routes were opened, that allowed ancient people to migrate south into the Americas. Which route was used and, when, remains a highly contentious topic amongst archaeologists and geologists. Dr Darvill and colleagues from universities in Canada and the USA used a helicopter to reach remote island locations along the Canadian coast. The research team chipped rock samples from the tops of boulders and bedrock, before taking them back to a lab to investigate further.

"We used a technique, called, ‘surface exposure dating’, where we measured the concentration of a rare isotope of beryllium in rocks exposed by the retreating ice." said Darvill. ‘’The isotope accumulates in certain rocks over time as they are bombarded by high-energy particles, cosmic rays, from outer space. Measuring the isotope tells you how much time has passed since the rock was exposed by retreating ice."

They found sites close to the present coastline were exposed at least 17,700 years ago, suggesting that the islands along the coastline were ice-free at this time. Some higher locations were exposed, even, earlier. This is important, because it suggests an early route along the coastline of Canada, might, have been viable well before an alternative, inland route.

The findings should help archaeologists target investigations tracing the migration pathways of early people into the Americas.

"Our work changes the model of when this ice sheet retreated in the past, improving our understanding of past climate change over western North America." said Dr Darvill. "The new findings add an exciting piece to the puzzle surrounding the colonisation of the continent."

The research received funding from the Tula Foundation, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada Discovery programme, Canada Research Chairs Programme and the Canada Foundation for Innovation. 

The Paper: Retreat of the Western Cordilleran Ice Sheet Margin During the Last Deglaciation: Christopher M. Darvill, tThe University of Manchester, UK, Brian Menounos, University of Northern British Columbia, Canada, Brent M. Goehring, Tulane University, USA, Olav B. Lian, University of the Fraser Valley, Canada and Marc W. Caffee Purdue University, USA: Published in Geophysical Research Letters

Image: Retreat of the Western Cordilleran Ice Sheet Margin During the Last Deglaciation by Christopher M. Darvill:::ω.

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When the Sea Advances: What Does It Do


|| September 25: 2018 || ά. Scientists are gathering in the Azores this week to share findings on how satellite has shown changes in the height of the sea, ice, inland bodies of water and more. Of concern to all is the fact that global sea level has not only been rising steadily over the last 25 years but recently it is rising at a much fast rate. The 25 Years of Progress in Radar Altimetry Symposium gives participants the opportunity to share information gained from this particular sort of satellite instrument.

Radar altimeters record the surface topography along the satellite’s ground track. They precisely measure the height of water, land and ice by timing the interval between the transmission and reception of very short radar pulses. This is the only technology, that can measure, systematically and globally, changes in the height of the ocean and is, therefore, essential for monitoring sea-level rise. The 25-year record of altimetry data allows scientists to determine trends. For example, between 1993 and 2018 the global ocean rose 03.2 mm every year, on average.

But, altimetry measurements, also,  show that over the last five years the global ocean has risen, on average, 04.8 mm a year. Ms Anny Cazenave from the Laboratoire d’Etudes en Géophysique et Océanographie Spatiales, said, “Satellite altimeters are an essential tool for monitoring sea-level rise. We use reference missions, such as, the CNES–NASA series of Jason satellites along with other missions, such as, the Copernicus Sentinel-Three mission to gather a time series of data to understand how sea level is changing in the long term.

This information shows that sea level has been rising at an average rate of about  03 mm a year since these records began in 1993. However, recent re-analysis of our records has shown that sea-level rise is accelerating because of global warming.”

ESA’s Mr Jérôme Benveniste said, “With many millions living in coastal communities around the world, sea-level rise is a major concern. The information we get from satellite altimeters is essential for understanding how fast our seas are rising so that decision-makers are equipped to take appropriate mitigating action.

At this week’s symposium we are not only looking back over the last 25 years of satellite altimetry but we are, also, looking to the future as we have the Copernicus Sentinel-Six mission in development and, also, a number of candidate satellite missions being studied. It is vital that we have satellite altimeters in the future to continue this long-term record of change.”

While trends and averages are important, it is equally important to understand regional differences. In some places the height of the sea is rising and in other places it is falling. There are a number of reasons for this. For example, when seawater warms it, also, expands, leading to a phenomenon called thermal expansion.

Although, thermal expansion is the biggest cause of sea-level rise as a consequence of climate change, there are many local differences. These differences can be caused by events, such as, El Niño, for example. Ice loss from the continental glaciers and from the polar ice sheets is, also, one of the most critical drivers of our rising seas. Ice loss from glaciers, Greenland and Antarctica accounts for about 45% of sea-level rise.

Another cause is discharge from waterbodies on land but how much this contributes to sea-level rise is more uncertain. As the symposium progresses, other scientific findings and discussions on the future will be discussed. :::ω.

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Life's Laurel Is You In One-Line-Poetry A Heaven-Bound Propagated Ray Of Light Off The Eye Of The Book Of Life: Love For You Are Only Once



Life: You Are The Law The Flow The Glow: In Joys In Hurts You Are The Vine-Songs On The Light-Trellis


























|| All copyrights @ The Humanion: London: England: United Kingdom || Contact: The Humanion: editor at || Regine Humanics Foundation Ltd: reginehumanics at || Editor: Munayem Mayenin || First Published: September 24: 2015 ||
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