The Arkive
|| Year Gamma: London: Thursday: July 19: 2018 ||
First Published: September 24: 2015
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A group of displaced Somali women residing at the Ifo Two Refugee Camp in Dadaab, Kenya, which is supported by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees:UNHCR. Image: UN:Evan Schneider. ‽: 190516

Justice Carole Lewis
The Supreme Court 
of Appeal South Africa












University of South Africa

Africa Arkive


Africa is made of countries: Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mayotte, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Réunion, Rwanda, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, São Tomé and Príncipe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Somaliland, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe


 Year Gamma Arkive 2017-18

Year Beta Arkive 2016-17

Year Alpha Arkive 2015-16

Sierra Leone: Arrest of Activists During Peaceful Protests Demonstrates the Urgency to Reform Restrictive Laws



|| July 18: 2018 || ά. Following the arrest and interrogation of activist Edmond Abu yesterday during a peaceful protest in Freetown, Sierra Leone, Ms Sabrina Mahtani, Amnesty International West Africa researcher, said, ‘’The arrest of Edmond Abu for participating in peaceful protest just months after the new government came into power shows the urgency of reforming restrictive laws on peaceful assembly. The authorities must end arbitrary arrest of protesters and uphold the right to freedom of peaceful assembly.

The Public Order Act 1965 is overly broad and gives too much discretion to the police. The new government claimed it was a victim of such laws and repressive policing whilst in opposition and now has a key opportunity to make history by making sure Sierra Leone’s laws on peaceful assembly are fully consistent and compatible with international human rights standards.”

Activist Edmond Abu was arrested in Freetown while participating in a protest against an increase in fuel prices. He was taken to the Criminal Investigation Department:CID Headquarters and released after being interrogated.

A police spokesperson told Amnesty International that Mr Abu had written to the police the day before, notifying them he was going to hold a protest and they had told him to discuss the matter with them but he went ahead with his protest. The police stated they were complying with the Public Order Act 1965.

The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights Guidelines for the Policing of Assemblies by Law Enforcement Officials in Africa underline that peaceful assembly is a right and not a privilege and that the responsibility is on authorities to facilitate peaceful assemblies. Notification requirements should not be a hidden obstacle to the effective enjoyment of the right to freedom of peaceful assembly.

Amnesty International launched a report on July 03, 2018 in Freetown, A Force for Good? Restrictions on Peaceful Assembly and Impunity for Excessive Use of Force by the Police, which urged the new government to reform restrictive laws and take steps to strengthen police accountability. :::ω.

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The Security Council Welcomes the Historic and Significant Joint Peace Declaration by Ethiopia and Eritrea



|| July 11: 2018 || ά. The United Nations Security Council on Tuesday described the Joint Declaration, signed by the Leaders of Eritrea and Ethiopia, as a ‘historic and significant, move with ‘far-reaching consequences’ for the whole Horn of Africa region and beyond. The Joint Declaration of Peace and Friendship signed on Monday by Eritrean President, Mr Isaias Afwerki and the Prime Minister of Ethiopia, Mr Abiy Ahmed.

The statement issued on behalf of the 15 Council members expressed the hope that that signalled the resumption of diplomatic ties, for the first time, in two decades between the two countries and opened a new chapter of co-operation and partnership. Among the measures agreed by the two leaders during the historic meeting in the Eritrean capital, Asmara, were the restoration of flights, the opening of embassies and for Ethiopia to use port facilities in Eritrea, according to news reports.

A block on telecommunications was, also, lifted, allowing families divided following a war across the disputed border between the countries, which left thousands dead, to telephone each other. ‘’The UN is ready to do whatever the two parties ask us to do.’’ Said Mr António Guterres, the UN Secretary-General.

The Council recognised the call in the Joint Declaration for solidarity and support and encouraged all actors to offer their support to the peace process. The statement hoped that members stood ready to support Eritrea and Ethiopia in their implementation of the Joint Declaration.

The Council members took note of the Secretary-General’s offer to support the process. On Monday, Mr António Guterres told journalists in the Ethiopian capital, where he was attending the second annual UN-African Union conference, that the recent evolution of relations in the past few weeks was a very important signal of hope, not only for these two countries, not only for Africa, but for the whole world.

“The UN is ready to do whatever the two parties ask us to do. The UN will be entirely at their disposal to do whatever is necessary to facilitate the success of what needs to be done.” said Mr. Guterres.

Mr Abiy Ahmed became Prime Minister of Ethiopia only in February, following the resignation of his predecessor and is the first leader to hail from the majority Oromo ethnic group. 

Since taking office, he has implemented a large number of political reforms and previously served in Government as Minister for Science and Technology. :::ω.

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WHO Supports Ebola Vaccination of High Risk Populations in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

|| May 22: 2018 || ά. The Government of the Democratic Republic of Congo, with the support of the World Health Organisation:WHO and its partners, is preparing to vaccinate high risk populations against Ebola virus disease:EVD in affected health zones. Health workers operating in affected areas are being vaccinated first and community outreach has started to prepare for the ring vaccination. More than 7,500 doses of the rVSV-ZEBOV Ebola vaccine have been deployed to conduct vaccination in the northwestern Equator Province, where 46 suspected, probable and confirmed Ebola cases and 26 deaths have been reported as of May 18.

Most of the cases are in Bikoro, a remote rural town, while four confirmed cases are in Mbandaka, the provincial capital with a population of over one million people. The vaccines are donated by Merck, while Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance is contributing US$01 million towards operational costs. The Wellcome Trust and DFID have, also, pledge funds to support research activities. "Vaccination will be key to controlling this outbreak." said Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, WHO Director-General. "We are grateful for the support of our partners in making this possible."

The Ministry of Health with WHO, Medecins Sans Frontieres:MSF, UNICEF and other key partners are implementing a ring vaccination with the yet to be licensed rVSV-ZEBOV Ebola vaccine, whereby the contacts of confirmed cases and the contacts of contacts are offered vaccination. Frontline healthcare workers and other persons with potential exposure to EVD, including but not limited to, laboratory workers, surveillance teams and people responsible for safe and dignified burials, will, also, receive the vaccine.

"We need to act fast to stop the spread of Ebola by protecting people at risk of being infected with the Ebola virus, identifying and ending all transmission chains and ensuring that all patients have rapid access to safe, high-quality care." said Dr Peter Salama, WHO Deputy Director-General for Emergency Preparedness and Response. A ring vaccination strategy relies on tracing all the contacts and contacts of contacts of a recently confirmed case as soon as possible. Teams on the ground have stepped up the active search and follow up of all contacts. More than 600 have been identified to date.

"Implementing the Ebola ring vaccination is a complex procedure." said Dr Matshidiso Moeti, WHO Regional Director for Africa. "The vaccines need to be stored at a temperature of minus 60 to minus 80 degrees centigrade and so transporting them to and storing them in affected areas is a major challenge."

WHO has sent special vaccine carriers, which can keep their contents in sub-zero temperatures for up to a week and has set up freezers to store the vaccines in Mbandaka and Bikoro. The Organisation is deploying both Congolese and Guinean experts to build the capacities of local health workers. The Ministry of Health, WHO, UNICEF and partners are engaging communities to inform people about Ebola, including, the vaccine.

The vaccine was shown to be highly protective against Ebola in a major trial in 2015 in Guinea. Among the 5,837 people who received the vaccine, no Ebola cases were recorded nine days or more after vaccination. While the vaccine is awaiting review by relevant regulatory authorities, WHO’s Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunisation:SAGE has recommended the use of the rVSV-ZEBOV Ebola vaccine under an expanded access, compassionate use protocol during Ebola outbreaks linked to the Zaire strain such as the one ongoing in the DRC.

WHO and its partners need US$26 million for the Ebola Response in the Democratic Republic of the Congo over the next three months. Funding has been received from Italy, UN CERF, Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, USAID, the Wellcome Trust and UK DFID. WHO has, also, released US$02 million from its Contingency Fund for Emergencies.

WHO partners in the DRC Ebola response include: The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies:IFRC, the Red Cross of the Democratic Republic of the Congo:DR Congo Red Cross, Médecins Sans Frontières:MSF, the Disaster Relief Emergency Fund:DREF, the Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention:Africa-CDC, the US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention:US-CDC, the World Food Programme:WFP, UNICEF, UNOCHA, MONUSCO, International Organisation for Migration:IOM, the FAO Emergency Management Centre Animal Health:EMC-AH, the International Humanitarian Partnership:IHP, Gavi the Vaccine Alliance, the African Field Epidemiology Network:AFENET, the UK Public Health Rapid Support team, the EPIET Alumni Network:EAN, the International Organisation for Animal Health:OIE, the Emerging Diseases Clinical Assessment and Response Network:EDCARN, the World Bank and PATH. Additional coordination and technical support is forthcoming through the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network:GOARN) and Emergency Medical Teams:EMT. ::: ω.

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WHO Expresses Concerned as One Ebola Case Confirmed in a New Urban Area of Democratic Republic of the Congo

|| May 17: 2018 || ά. One new case of Ebola virus disease:EVD has been confirmed in Wangata, one of the three health zones of Mbandaka, a city of nearly 01.2 million people in Equateur Province in northwestern Democratic Republic of the Congo. he Ministry of Health of the DRC announced the finding, after laboratory tests conducted by the Institut National de Recherche Biomédicale confirmed one specimen as positive for EVD.

Until now, all the confirmed Ebola cases were reported from Bikoro health zone, which is, also, in Equateur Province but at a distance of nearly 150 km from Mbandaka. The health facilities in Bikoro have very limited functionality and the affected areas are difficult to reach, particularly, during the current rainy season, as the roads are often impassable. ''This is a concerning development but we now have better tools than ever before to combat Ebola.” said Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, WHO Director-General.

“WHO and our partners are taking decisive action to stop further spread of the virus.” The World Health Organisation is deploying around 30 experts to conduct surveillance in the city and is working with the Ministry of Health and partners to engage with communities on prevention and treatment and the reporting of new cases.

“The arrival of Ebola in an urban area is very concerning and WHO and partners are working together to rapidly scale up the search for all contacts of the confirmed case in the Mbandaka area.” said Dr Matshidiso Moeti, WHO Regional Director for Africa.

WHO is, also, working with Médecins Sans Frontières:MSF and other partners to strengthen the capacity of health facilities to treat Ebola patients in special isolation wards.

As of May 15, a total of 44 Ebola virus disease cases have been reported: three confirmed, 20 probable and 21 suspected. ::: ω.

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WHO's Largest Cholera Vaccine Drive in History to Vaccinate Two Million People in Five African Countries

|| May 07: 2018 || ά. A spate of cholera outbreaks across Africa has prompted the largest cholera vaccination drive in history, with more than two million people across the continent set to receive oral cholera vaccine:OCV. The vaccines, funded by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, were sourced from the global stockpile and are being used to carry out five major campaigns in Zambia, Uganda, Malawi, South Sudan and Nigeria. The campaigns, which will be completed by mid-June, are being implemented by the respective Ministries of Health supported by the World Health Organisation:WHO and partners of the Global Task Force on Cholera Control:GTFCC and, mostly, in reaction to recent cholera outbreaks.

And, this shows when a World Body keeps focus to why it exists and keeps at it regardless of the challenges, what can be attempted and achieved. This is how must the world keep at it and edge towards bettering the desperate human condition. WHO and all other of its partner agencies must be congratulated on this mammoth task. In the 15 years between 1997 and 2012 just 01.5 million doses of cholera vaccines were used worldwide. In 2017 alone almost 11 million were used, from Sierra Leone to Somalia to Baangladesh. In the first four months of 2018 over 15 million doses have, already, been approved for use worldwide. And, here are the other most desperately long over due challenges: to ensure safe drinking water for all and safe sanitation system: until we are able to ensure this happens a whole lot of illnesses, including, cholera will keep on devastating humanity.

“Oral cholera vaccines are a key weapon in our fight against choler.” said Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, WHO Director-General. “But there are many other things we need to do to keep people safe. WHO and our partners are saving lives every day by improving access to clean water and sanitation, establishing treatment centres, delivering supplies, distributing public health guidance, training health workers, and working with communities on prevention.” “This is an unprecedented response to a spike in cholera outbreaks across Africa.” said Dr Seth Berkley, CEO of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. “We have worked hard to ensure there is now enough vaccine supply to keep the global stockpile topped up and ready for most eventualities. However, with more and more people now succumbing to this terrible, preventable disease, the need for improved water and sanitation, the only long-term, sustainable solution to cholera outbreaks, has never been clearer.”

Through its Regional Office for Africa, WHO regularly provides technical and operational support to countries often affected by cholera in Africa. In particular, since the beginning of 2018 WHO has led on providing technical expertise and guidance, working closely with Ministries of Health in the five countries to plan and implement the campaigns with different partners. This is part of a global push to reduce cholera deaths by 90 percent by 2030.

The burden of cholera remains high in many African countries. As of May 07 many countries are facing cholera outbreaks, with at least 12 areas or countries reporting active cholera transmission in Sub-Saharan Africa. Recent developments in the use of OCVs show that the strong mobilisation of countries and partners can effectively tackle the disease when tools for prevention and control are readily available.

“Every rainy season, cholera springs up and brings devastation to communities across Africa.” said Dr Matshidiso Moeti, WHO’s Regional Director for Africa. “With this historic cholera vaccination drive, countries in the region are demonstrating their commitment to stopping cholera from claiming more lives. We need to build on this momentum through a multi-sectoral approach and ensure that everyone has access to clean water and sanitation, no matter where they are located.”

The five African campaigns are:

Nigeria: 01.2 million doses will protect around 600,000 people to contain an emerging cholera outbreak in Bauchi state, where more than 1,700 cases have been reported.

Malawi: One million doses of cholera vaccine will protect over 500,000 people in Lilongwe to combat an outbreak which has infected more than 900 people across the country.

Uganda: 360,000 doses of cholera vaccine have been shipped to Uganda to protect 360,000 people in Hoima District, Western Uganda, after an outbreak in Kyangwali refugee camp hospitalized more than 900 people. The country is also now engaging in long-term cholera control planning to vaccinate over 01.7 million people in the coming months.

Zambia: 667,100 doses of cholera vaccine are being delivered as part of the second round of vaccination to the Lusaka slums after a major outbreak infected over 5700 people, killing more than 100. Zambia is also engaging on long term cholera control and planning vaccination in additional hotspots.

South Sudan: 113,800 doses have been shipped as a preventative measure ahead of the war-torn country’s rainy season. These extra doses will complement doses remaining from previous campaigns to target Panyijiar. Over 02.6 million doses of OCV have been administered in South Sudan since 2014.

Oral Cholera Vaccine is recommended to be given in two doses. The first gives protection for six months, the second for three to five years. All five campaigns should have completed their second round of vaccinations by mid-June. A resolution on cholera will be proposed by Zambia and Haiti at this month’s World Health Assembly, calling for renewed political will and an integrated approached to eliminate cholera, including investment in clean water, sanitation and hygiene:WASH.

The global cholera vaccine stockpile is managed by the Global Task Force on Cholera Control:GTFCC, which decides on OCV use in non-emergency setting, and the International Coordinating Group:ICG, which decides on outbreak response and features representatives from WHO, UNICEF, the International Committee of the Red Cross:ICRC and Medecins Sans Frontières:MSF. The stockpile is funded in full by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, which is a GTFCC partner and has an observer status on the ICG.

About Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance: Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance is a public-private partnership committed to saving children's lives and protecting people's health by increasing equitable use of vaccines in lower-income countries. The Vaccine Alliance brings together developing country and donor governments, the World Health Organisation, UNICEF, the World Bank, the vaccine industry, technical agencies, civil society, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and other private sector partners. Gavi uses innovative finance mechanisms, including, co-financing by recipient countries, to secure sustainable funding and adequate supply of quality vaccines. Since 2000, Gavi has contributed to the immunisation of nearly 640 million children and the prevention of more than nine million future deaths.

About the World Health Organisation: The World Health Organisation is the directing and co-ordinating authority on international health within the United Nations’ system. Key areas of work are: providing leadership on matters critical to health and engaging in partnerships, where joint action is needed; shaping the research agenda and stimulating the generation, translation and dissemination of valuable knowledge; setting norms and standards and promoting and monitoring their implementation; articulating ethical and evidence-based policy options; providing technical support, catalysing change and building sustainable institutional capacit; and monitoring the health situation and assessing health trends. ::: ω.

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University of Southampton is Working to Support Kenyan Government to Create National Energy Lab

|| April 19: 2018: University of Southampton News || ά. Expertise from the University of Southampton is helping the government of Kenya to secure the country’s future energy needs.  Under its Vision 2030 development policy, Kenya identifies energy as one of the key enablers for its future socio-economic development for the universal benefit of the Kenyan people and the economy. A sustainable, affordable and reliable energy supply has long been recognised as one of the most important enabling factors in transforming any nation into a modern and more prosperous society.

To address the future development of Kenya’s substantial natural fossil and energy based resources, a greater understanding of how to best exploit these resources was required. Professor Abu Bakr Bahaj, Head of the Energy and Climate Change Division at the University of Southampton, a world-recognised expert in the field of energy, has provided guidance and support to the Kenya’s Ministry of Energy for the development of new Kenyan National Energy Laboratory. The Kenyan Ministry of Energy began by developing a concept note for the creation of the new Laboratory, bringing together all aspects of research and development in the field of sustainable and affordable energy.

The Ministry, with the assistance of Professor Bahaj, also, initiated a consultation process designed to allow all stakeholders to have input into the creation of the new facility. Professor Bahaj described the initiative as 'a tremendous opportunity for Kenya to grow its energy research and development capabilities as it builds its energy sector. This initiative will create technical knowhow and, through both fundamental and applied research, produce leaders in the energy field. KNEL offers Kenya the opportunity to become beacon of energy research in Africa.

Mr Eng Isaac Kiva, the Ministry of Energy’s Director of Renewable Energy, said, “Pervasive challenges, currently, exist, that impede the capacity of the Kenyan energy sector to, fully, exploit, develop and deploy energy technologies. These challenges include, among others, poor co-ordination, lack of data and information for planning and high capital costs of energy systems.

These have resulted in low uptake of low carbon and efficient technologies. We hope KNEL will start to address such challenges by augmenting what already exists in Kenya but, also, provide specific innovations in the energy field. Additionally, it is our intention that KNEL will work closely with industry, government, academia and international organisations, such as, the University of Southampton, to advance the use of innovation, research and development of energy technologies in the market place.”

In recent weeks, Professor Bahaj has facilitated workshops in collaboration with the Kenya Ministry of Energy, followed by consultation processes, held in February and March 2018, which discussed options for the future planning and structure of Kenyan National Energy Laboratory. Professor Bahaj and colleagues from the University of Southampton have years of experience in addressing and helping to solve Kenya’s energy needs.

The Energy for Development Network, co-ordinated by Southampton’s Sustainable Energy Research Group:SERG, is, already, creating a step-change in collaborative research and project development through the installation of solar-powered energy in three Kenyan villages.

In an initial pilot project, the project has brought power to the village of Kitonyoni, approximately 150 kilometres south east of Nairobi, through a solar photovoltaic system with battery storage. The electricity was distributed across the village via a mini-grid. The researchers provided support and training on using the new technology to empower the people living in the villages to use and maintain it.

This pilot project was so successful that it was rolled out in five other villages across Kenya, Cameroon and Uganda, at the requests of their respective governments. In collaboration with the government of Kenya, the research team is now hoping to deliver this type of benefit to around 60 villages in Kenya.

Caption: Southampton’s Sustainable Energy Research Group is, already, creating a step-change in collaborative research and project development through the installation of solar-powered energy in three Kenyan villages: Image: University of Southampton. ::: ω.

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New Project Has Been Launched to Help Deaf Children in South Africa

|| April 16: 2018 || ά. A new project has been launched in South Africa by UK University, the University of Manchester and South African University, the University of the Witwatersrand, aiming to raise awareness of the vulnerability of deaf children in the country, as well as, to try altering society’s attitudes towards them. Deaf children and youth face discrimination and exclusion from society in South Africa; they are not given adequate opportunities for acquiring language, building meaningful relationships, receiving specialised healthcare and receiving equal education.

All of this vastly decreases their life chances and infringes their human rights. A multi-disciplinary international collaboration, supported by the Arts and Humanities Research Council, the Medical Research Council and the Global Challenges Research Fund, is bringing together visual anthropology, social research and deaf studies in an effort to positively shift social attitudes towards deaf children and youth. Over the next eighteen months, the University of Manchester’s Social Research with Deaf people group and Granada Centre for Visual Anthropology, in partnership with the Centre for Deaf Studies at the University of the Witwatersrand, will explore how to research and represent the lives of deaf children through documentary film.

The work will be delivered in close partnership with NGOs Hi Hopes and Thrive and is endorsed by South Africa’s Department of Health. Deaf people, hearing people and parents of deaf children will all work together to achieve this ambitious programme.

“Deaf young people face very particular challenges in achieving their potential and becoming full citizens.” say Professors Alys Young and Andrew Irving from the University of Manchester.

“As visual people, they, also, have unique resources on which to draw. Through the pioneering use of community-based film methods, this project tunes in to their latent strengths as visual learners with the capacity to develop new resiliencies given the right opportunities.”

“We are thrilled to be launching this multi-disciplinary research collaboration in the year that the Wits Centre for Deaf Studies celebrates its 20th anniversary.”, says Professor Claudine Storbeck, Director for the Centre of Deaf Studies, University of the Witwatersrand.

About the University of Manchester: University of Manchester is a member of the prestigious Russell Group, is the UK’s largest single-site university with 39,700 students and is consistently ranked among the world’s elite for graduate employability. The University is, also, one of the country’s major research institutions, rated fifth in the UK in terms of ‘research power’. World-class research is carried out across a diverse range of fields including cancer, advanced materials, addressing global inequalities, energy and industrial biotechnology. No fewer than 25 Nobel laureates have either worked or studied here.

It is the only UK university to have social responsibility among its core strategic objectives, with staff and students alike dedicated to making a positive difference in communities around the world. Manchester is ranked 38th in the world in the Academic Ranking of World Universities 2017 and 6th in the UK. The University had an annual income of almost £01 billion in 2015:16. ::: ω.

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Regine Humanics Foundation Begins Its Journey Today: The Humanion Is Now A Regine Humanics Foundation Publication


|| April 06: 2018 || ά. The Humanion was first published on September 24, 2015 and has been run, since that day, on a complete voluntary basis without any 'formal' or 'constituted' manner or form and, it was run on as a Human Enterprise, which is an idea of Humanics, in which, ownership is replaced by belongingship and, thus, in a Humanical Society, no one owns anything but everyone belongs to the whole as the whole belongs to everyone lawfully and equally and, it neither believes in nor makes money but human utilities, needs, aspirations, creativity, imagination and dreams are served without money, where everyone works and creates for all others as all others create and work for all others, thus, bringing in meaning and purpose to life along with it come natural justice, equality and liberty, that establish a true civilisation within the Rule of Law. And in one word, this system of human affairs management is called, Humanics and a society that runs itself in humanics is called a humanical society. Today, we have begun the process of 'constituting' this Human Enterprise, which does not exist in the current system, but the next closest thing to it, that exists in the UK Law is Social Enterprise. Therefore, today, Friday, April 06, 2018, we are beginning Regine Humanics Foundation, that is the 'Agency', that will lead, run, manage and develop everything, that The Humanion has been trying to do.

Regine Humanics Foundation is established by the Thinker, Author, Poet, Novelist, Playwright, Editor of The Humanion, Festival Director of London Poetry Festival and a Humanicsxian: hu: maa: neek: tian: One, that believes in, lives and exists by Humanics, Mr Munayem Mayenin, of London, England, United Kingdom. Mr Mayenin says, ''Humanics is a vision; people, may, call it, utopia, we, call it our Humanicsovicsopia; Humanics. Humanics is our philosophy, our faith, our conviction, our resolution, our way of existing, thinking, being and doing: to seek and try to do so in the determination that all we must do and be is to exist to advance the human condition. People, readers and agencies and organisations, from all across England, Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales and the whole of the United Kingdom and Australasia, Africa, Asia, Europe, North and South America, from all walks and strata of life, have supported our endeavours, supported The Humanion and The Humanion Team, who volunteered their time to run things, since the beginning of The Humanion and long before that, when other things, that are now part of The Foundation, were developing. Nothing has changed in terms of the nature and value of what we have been seeking to do.''

''But the founding of The Foundation brings it all in a solid foundation so that we can keep on building this 'vision' so that it keeps on going regardless of who come to take the vision-mission of The Foundation forward. The Foundation runs along with time and along with the flowing humanity. This is the dream, this is the vision, this the hope in founding this Foundation. And, in this, we hope and invite all our readers, supporters, well wishers and all agencies and organisations to support our endeavours to build something, a Human Enterprise, which we are in the process of registering as a Social Enterprise, as a Community Interest Company, working for the common good of the one and common humanity. No one makes or takes profit out of The Foundation, which now runs The Humanion and everything else, that is part of it. The Foundation, once registered, will have an Asset Lock, which means that in any event, should The Foundation dissolve itself, all its existing assets shall go to a similar Social Enterprise. Therefore, we invite everyone to support The Foundation, support The Humanion in whatever way they can. And, there are endless number of ways people and organisations can support The Foundation and The Humanion.'' ::: ω.

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The State of Somalia

|| April 04: 2018 || ά. A UK House of Commons Briefing Paper takes a look at the current situation in Somalia, published on March 27. Mr Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed, known as Farmajo, was elected Somalia's President by parliament on February 08, 2017. During the campaign he promised to renew the fight against corruption and suggested that he would be open to talks with Al-Shabaab. He came into office with a reputation for competence. However, just over a year on, this reputation is, already, being severely tested. President Mr Farmajo faces a big challenge in consolidating the country’s emerging federal system. His predecessor failed to see through a constitutional review process, that might have given it a more solid legal and administrative underpinning.
Mr Farmajo has made slow progress to date on this count. For now, the status of the regional states remain ‘interim’ and the division of powers between them and the centre opaque. There have been tensions between Mogadishu and some of the regional states. Some wonder whether Western backers of the federal experiment in Somalia might begin to lose faith in it over the period ahead. Mr Farmajo, who hails from the Darod clan, is, also, facing challenges from the powerful Abgal sub-clan of the Hawiye clan, which has felt under-represented in his government. Some have gone so far as to call for his Prime Minister, Mr Hassan Ali Khayre, to be replaced by one of their own.
During the first quarter of 2018, opposition politicians have been canvassing for an impeachment motion in the federal parliament, which has, barely, sat at all since February 2017, against President Mr Farmajo, so far without success. Khayre, meanwhile, is pressing a no-confidence motion in the Lower House against the Speaker. Western and African governments have expressed concern about the growing political instability.

Behind the scenes, foreign interests further complicate the political picture. Various Gulf States are busy trying to increase their influence, including, by sponsoring local politicians. In terms of the wider confrontation between the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia, on the one hand and Qatar, on the other, the Farmajo government has sought to remain neutral. In retaliation, they have stopped making regular budgetary support payments to Somalia. But some regional states have taken the side of the UAE and Saudi Arabia.

Some have interpreted the UAE’s agreement with Somaliland to open a naval base in the coastal town of Berbera as part of a strategy to raise the costs for Mogadishu of refusing to fall into line. This has come in the context of the UAE and Ethiopia buying significant stakes in Somaliland’s wider plans for the development of the port at Berbera. On March 12 tensions deepened, when the Somali federal parliament voted to expel the state-owned UAE company DP World in protest at its involvement in developing the port at Berbera.

Africa Confidential assessed in January 2018 that there had been no improvement in the security situation since Mr Farmajo took office. Since 2016, after several years of fighting, in which, it lost control over substantial areas of territory, Al-Shabaab has, increasingly, prioritised conducting asymmetrical attacks on Mogadishu and other urban centres. However, it retains control over substantial tracts of territory in the south of the country and supply routes between towns.

Al-Shabaab’s conducted its deadliest attack eve, although, it has, never, officially, claimed responsibility, in October 2017 in Mogadishu, when bombs in two lorries killed an estimated 512 people, most of them civilians. The attack generated a wave of public anger against Al-Shabaab in the capital but there was, also, disillusionment with the performance of the national government.

US airstrikes against Al-Shabaab targets have been, increasingly, often, deployed in tandem with SNA and African Mission in Somalia:AMISOM operations. In November 2017, for the first time, there were three US airstrikes against Daesh targets in Somalia. After a relative lull at the end of 2017, since January 2018, there have been further major Al-Shabaab attacks in Mogadishu. For example, on March 22, a car bomb killed at least 14 people near a hotel.

During President Mr Farmajo’s first year in power, the issue of AMISOM’s future began to be posed more sharply. The third conference to be held in London about Somalia since 2012 took place in May 2017. It agreed a plan whereby the SNA would, gradually, take over from AMISOM. In August 2017, the UN Security Council renewed AMISOM’s mandate until May 2018 while endorsing its scaling back. AMISOM announced, subsequently, that 1,000 troops out of its total complement of 22,000 would leave Somalia by the end of 2017.

With donor support, efforts are underway to improve the co-ordination between the Somali National Army and forces loyal to the regional states. The aim is to increase the size of the SNA from its current level of around 11,000 to 18,000-strong.

President Mr Farmajo took office in February 2017 amidst a severe drought. Over a year on, although, the threat of famine has so far been averted, the drought remains intense. The agricultural sector has, virtually, collapsed. The forecast for rain is poor. Donors provided more than $01.2 billion towards famine prevention during 2017. In January 2018, the UK Government announced an additional £21 million in funding.

President Mr Farmajo has, so far, had no success in improving relations with the self-declared independent state of Somaliland. After several postponements, Somaliland held presidential elections in November 2017. The victor was Mr Muse Bihi Abdi of the ruling Kulmiye Party. The defeated candidate, Mr Abdirahman Irro of the Waddani Party, claimed that there had been fraud but the Supreme Court upheld the result. There was some violence before and after the elections but clan elders, as in the past, played a part in calming the situation.

Commons Briefing papers CBP-7298: Author: Jon Lunn: Published on March 27: 2018
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